Turner Syndrome⚡Mnemonic⚡

Here are all the mnemonics you ever wanted on ⚡Turner Syndrome⚡. These mnemonics covers all aspects of the disease/health condition 

Causes of Turner Syndrome
Mnemonic: MISSING X

M: Monosomy X (45, X)

I: Isochromosome X formation

S: Structural abnormalities in X chromosome

S: Spontaneous genetic mutation

I: Idiopathic (unknown in some cases)

N: Non-disjunction during meiosis

G: Genetic mosaicism

X: X chromosome anomalies


Warning Signs of Turner Syndrome
Mnemonic: SHORT

S: Stature (short)

H: Heart defects

O: Ovarian failure

R: Renal anomalies

T: Turner facies (distinctive facial features)


Signs & Symptoms of Turner Syndrome
Mnemonic: NECK LINES

N: Neck webbing

E: Early loss of ovarian function

C: Cubitus valgus (elbows turned outwards)

K: Kidney problems

L: Low hairline at the back of the neck

I: Intelligence (normal, but some learning difficulties)

N: Nail dysplasia

E: Edema of the hands and feet in infants

S: Short stature


Characteristic Findings in Turner Syndrome
Mnemonic: CARDIO

C: Cardiac anomalies (coarctation of aorta)

A: Absent or streak ovaries

R: Renal malformations

D: Delayed puberty

I: Infertility

O: Otitis media (recurrent ear infections)


Clinical Features of Turner Syndrome
Mnemonic: FEMALE

F: Facial features (Turner facies)

E: Endocrine issues (thyroid, diabetes)

M: Menses absent or irregular

A: Aortic dissection risk

L: Lymphedema

E: Ears (hearing problems)


Drugs Used To Treat Turner Syndrome
Mnemonic: GROWTH

G: Growth hormone therapy

R: Reproductive technologies (for infertility)

O: Ovarian hormone replacement therapy

W: Wellness and psychological support

T: Treatment for cardiac, kidney, and thyroid issues

H: Hearing management (for ear-related issues)


Radiological Features of Turner Syndrome
Mnemonic: BONE AGE

B: Broad chest with widely spaced nipples

O: Ovarian dysgenesis (streak ovaries)

N: Nuchal translucency (increased in fetuses)

E: Elbows (carrying angle increased)

A: Aortic anomalies

G: Growth retardation

E: Echocardiogram abnormalities (heart defects)


Diagnostic Tests for Turner Syndrome

K: Karyotyping for chromosomal analysis

A: Audiometry (hearing tests)

R: Renal ultrasound

Y: Yearly medical follow-ups

O: Ophthalmologic exams

T: Thyroid function tests

Y: Young age screening (early diagnosis)

P: Pelvic ultrasound (reproductive organs)

E: Echocardiogram (heart structure and function)


Laboratory Findings in Turner Syndrome

C: Chromosome analysis showing 45, X

H: Hormonal imbalances (estrogen, thyroid)

R: Reduced estrogen levels

O: Osteoporosis risk (bone density monitoring)

M: Markedly increased FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone)

O: Ovarian failure indicators

S: Short stature (growth hormone levels)

O: Osteopenia (bone mineral density)

M: Metabolic profile (risk of diabetes)

E: Echocardiogram results


Complications of Turner Syndrome
Mnemonic: HEART

H: Heart defects (congenital)

E: Endocrine disorders (hypothyroidism, diabetes)

A: Autoimmune disorders (celiac disease)

R: Reproductive issues (infertility)

T: Turner-specific medical issues (hearing loss, skeletal problems)


Differential Diagnosis of Turner Syndrome
Mnemonic: SHORT GIRL

S: Short stature of other origins

H: Hypothyroidism

O: Ovarian failure (other causes)

R: Renal anomalies (other genetic syndromes)

T: Trisomy X

G: Growth hormone deficiency

I: Idiopathic short stature

R: Rickets

L: Lymphatic dysplasias

Dr. Arin Nandi

Passionate About Medical Science & Helping Future Doctors Achieve Top Ranks In Medical Exams. He is professionally a dentist as well as a public health expert from JIPMER (1), (2)working in health department