Here is a quick mnemonic/memory aid “SHOULDER to remember about the Risk Factors For Shoulder Dystocia


S: Size of the Fetus – Macrosomia (large baby) is a significant risk factor for Shoulder Dystocia.

H: History of Shoulder Dystocia – A previous occurrence increases the risk.

O: Obstetric Factors – This includes prolonged second stage of labor and instrumental delivery, both of which can increase the risk of Shoulder Dystocia.

U: Uterine Factors – Multiparity (having multiple pregnancies) is a uterine factor associated with increased risk.

L: Labor Interventions – The use of forceps, vacuum extraction, or epidurals can contribute to Shoulder Dystocia.

D: Diabetes – Gestational or pre-existing diabetes increases the risk of Shoulder Dystocia.

E: Episiotomy – An episiotomy may be performed to facilitate delivery, but it can increase the risk of Shoulder Dystocia.

R: Race – Studies have shown that certain racial groups, such as Native Americans and Hispanic populations, may have a higher risk of Shoulder Dystocia.

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Dr. Arin Nandi

Passionate About Medical Science & Helping Future Doctors Achieve Top Ranks In Medical Exams. He is professionally a dentist as well as a public health expert from JIPMER (1), (2)working in health department