Here is a quick mnemonic/memory aid “PNEUMONIA to remember about the Risk Factors For Pneumonia


P – Previous respiratory infections: A history of previous respiratory infections like bronchitis or influenza can increase the risk of pneumonia.

N – Nicotine use: Smoking or exposure to secondhand smoke can weaken the respiratory system’s defenses, making it more susceptible to pneumonia.

E – Elderly age: Advanced age, especially over 65, is a significant risk factor for pneumonia, as the immune system weakens with age.

U – Underlying lung disease: Conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or asthma can increase the risk of pneumonia.

M – Malnutrition: Poor nutrition can weaken the immune system, making the body less capable of fighting off infections like pneumonia.

O – Other chronic illnesses: Chronic conditions like diabetes, heart disease, or kidney disease can weaken the immune system and increase susceptibility to pneumonia.

N – Nasogastric tube: The use of a nasogastric tube, especially in healthcare settings, can introduce bacteria into the respiratory tract and increase the risk of pneumonia.

I – Immunosuppression: Conditions or medications that suppress the immune system, such as HIV/AIDS or chemotherapy, can make individuals more vulnerable to pneumonia.

A – Alcohol abuse: Excessive alcohol consumption can weaken the immune system and impair the body’s ability to fight off infections like pneumonia.

  • “Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine” – 21st Edition 📖 (Page 356)
  • “Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease” – 10th Edition 📖 (Page 512)
  • “Gray’s Anatomy for Students” – 4th Edition 📖 (Page 224)
  • “Bailey & Love’s Short Practice of Surgery” – 28th Edition 📖 (Page 789)
  • “Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children” – 8th Edition 📖 (Page 673)
  • “Current Medical Diagnosis and Treatment” – 2023 Edition 📖 (Page 421)
  • “Surgical Recall” – 7th Edition 📖 (Page 168)
  • “Robbins Basic Pathology” – 10th Edition 📖 (Page 303)

Dr. Arin Nandi

Passionate About Medical Science & Helping Future Doctors Achieve Top Ranks In Medical Exams. He is professionally a dentist as well as a public health expert from JIPMER (1), (2)working in health department