Here is a quick mnemonic/memory aid “KIDNEY PAIN to remember about the Risk Factors For Kidney Stones


KKidney Infection: A history of kidney infections can increase the risk of kidney stones.

IInadequate Hydration: Dehydration can lead to the formation of kidney stones.

DDiet High in Sodium: Excessive sodium intake can contribute to the development of kidney stones.

NNot Enough Citrate: Low levels of citrate in the urine can be a risk factor for kidney stones.

EExcessive Calcium: Too much calcium in the diet or supplements can increase the risk of calcium-based kidney stones.

YYouth: Kidney stones can occur at any age, but they are more common in young adults.

PParathyroid Disorders: Conditions affecting the parathyroid glands can lead to high calcium levels, increasing the risk of kidney stones.

AAcidic Urine: Urine that is too acidic can promote the formation of uric acid kidney stones.

IInflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD): IBD, such as Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis, can be a risk factor for kidney stones.

NNonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs): Frequent use of NSAIDs can increase the risk of kidney stones due to their effects on the kidneys.

  1. “Cecil Medicine” – 26th Edition 📚 (Page 411)
  2. “Diagnostic Pathology: Gastrointestinal” – 3rd Edition 📚 (Page 232)
  3. “Zollinger’s Atlas of Surgical Operations” – 11th Edition 📚 (Page 152)
  4. “Robbins and Cotran Atlas of Pathology” – 3rd Edition 📚 (Page 288)
  5. “Step-Up to Medicine” – 5th Edition 📚 (Page 189)
  6. “Essentials of General Surgery” – 6th Edition 📚 (Page 321)
  7. “Wheater’s Functional Histology” – 7th Edition 📚 (Page 178)
  8. “Harrison’s Manual of Medicine” – 20th Edition 📚 (Page 272)

Dr. Arin Nandi

Passionate About Medical Science & Helping Future Doctors Achieve Top Ranks In Medical Exams. He is professionally a dentist as well as a public health expert from JIPMER (1), (2)working in health department