Here is a quick mnemonic/memory aid “HEART FAILURE to remember about the Risk Factors For Heart Failure


H – Hypertension

E – Elevated cholesterol levels

A – Arrhythmias (irregular heart rhythms)

R – Rheumatic heart disease

T – Tobacco use (smoking)

F – Family history of heart disease

A – Alcohol abuse

I – Ischemic heart disease (coronary artery disease)

L – Left ventricular hypertrophy (enlarged heart)

U – Uncontrolled diabetes

R – Renal (kidney) disease

E – Excess weight (obesity)

  • “Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine” (21st Edition) 📖 Page 456
  • “Robbins & Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease” (10th Edition) 📖 Page 732
  • “Bailey & Love’s Short Practice of Surgery” (27th Edition) 📖 Page 621
  • “Kumar and Clark’s Clinical Medicine” (10th Edition) 📖 Page 843
  • “Current Medical Diagnosis and Treatment” (2023) 📖 Page 512
  • “Surgical Recall” (7th Edition) 📖 Page 309
  • “Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children” (8th Edition) 📖 Page 728
  • “Essential Clinical Anatomy” (5th Edition) 📖 Page 241

Dr. Arin Nandi

Passionate About Medical Science & Helping Future Doctors Achieve Top Ranks In Medical Exams. He is professionally a dentist as well as a public health expert from JIPMER (1), (2)working in health department