Here is a quick mnemonic/memory aid “CHRONIC COUGH to remember about the Risk Factors For COPD


C – Cigarette Smoking: Smoking is the most significant risk factor for COPD. It’s responsible for approximately 85-90% of all cases.

H – Household Air Pollution: Exposure to indoor pollutants such as biomass fuel and coal can contribute to the development of COPD, especially in low-income countries.

R – Respiratory Infections: Frequent or severe respiratory infections, such as pneumonia, can increase the risk of COPD, particularly in childhood.

O – Occupational Exposures: Exposure to workplace irritants like dust, chemicals, and fumes can significantly raise the risk of developing COPD. Examples include miners exposed to coal dust or construction workers exposed to asbestos.

N – (Blank)

I – Inactivity: A sedentary lifestyle and lack of physical activity can contribute to the development and progression of COPD.

C – Chronic Bronchitis: Chronic bronchitis, characterized by long-term inflammation and irritation of the airways, is a significant risk factor for COPD.

C – Comorbidities: Conditions such as asthma, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and heart disease can increase the risk and severity of COPD.

O – Older Age: While COPD can develop at any age, it is more common in older adults, and age is considered a risk factor.

U – Underweight: Being underweight or having poor nutrition can weaken the respiratory muscles and increase susceptibility to COPD.

G – Gender: Historically, COPD has been more common in men. However, this gender gap is narrowing as more women take up smoking.

H – Hostile Environment: Living in an area with high levels of air pollution, including outdoor pollution like fine particulate matter (PM2.5), can contribute to the development of COPD.

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Dr. Arin Nandi

Passionate About Medical Science & Helping Future Doctors Achieve Top Ranks In Medical Exams. He is professionally a dentist as well as a public health expert from JIPMER (1), (2)working in health department