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Here is a quick mnemonic “PATHOPHYSIOLOGY to remember about Pathophysiology Of Dysphagia

This can be valuable for patients as well as medical doctors, nurses & students doing their clinical rounds. You can also find it very useful for med exams like USMLE, NExT Medical Step 1&2, MBBS, NEET PG, INI-CET, FMGE,MCAT & NCLEX exams

Pathophysiology Of Dysphagia : How To Remember Easily ?

  • P – Peristalsis and Propulsive Dysphagia: Dysphagia due to abnormalities of peristalsis or impaired sphincter relaxation after swallowing is called propulsive or motor dysphagia.
  • A – Abnormalities of Bolus and Lumen: Dysphagia caused by an oversized bolus or a narrow lumen is called structural dysphagia.
  • T – Transport of Bolus: Normal transport of an ingested bolus depends on the consistency and size of the bolus, the caliber of the lumen, and the integrity of peristaltic contraction.
  • H – Head and Neck Radiation: Radiation therapy for head and neck cancer may compound the functional deficits in oropharyngeal swallow and cause cervical esophageal stenosis.
  • O – Oral, Pharyngeal, or Esophageal Dysphagia: Dysphagia can be subclassified by location: oral, pharyngeal, or esophageal.
  • P – Perception and Sensory Innervation: Symptom reporting of dysphagia is dependent upon intact sensory innervation and central nervous system perception.
  • H – Head and Neck Cancer: Scleroderma commonly presents with absent peristalsis and a weakened LES that predisposes patients to peptic stricture formation.
  • Y – Yes to Multiple Mechanisms: More than one mechanism may be operative in a patient with dysphagia.
  • S – Stricture Formation: Scleroderma patients are predisposed to peptic stricture formation due to absent peristalsis and a weakened LES.
  • I – Integrity of UES and LES: Normal bolus transport depends on the integrity of peristaltic contraction and deglutitive inhibition of both the UES and the LES.
  • O – Occurrence and Circumstances: Dysphagia can be subclassified both by location and by the circumstances in which it occurs.
  • L – Location-based considerations: Distinct considerations apply to oral, pharyngeal, or esophageal dysphagia.
  • O – One or More Mechanisms: More than one mechanism may be involved in causing dysphagia in a patient.
  • G – Gastrointestinal Conditions: Dysphagia can be caused by structural abnormalities, motor dysfunction, or other gastrointestinal conditions.
  • Y – You may experience multiple causes: Dysphagia can result from various factors, making it important to consider multiple causes.


Dr. Arin Nandi

Passionate About Medical Science & Helping Future Doctors Achieve Top Ranks In Medical Exams. He is professionally a dentist as well as a public health expert from JIPMER (1), (2)working in health department