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Here are all the mnemonics you ever wanted on ⚡Osteoporosis⚡. These mnemonics covers all aspects of the disease/health condition 

Causes of Osteoporosis

Mnemonic: CALCIUM

C – Corticosteroid use

A – Alcohol use

L – Low body weight

C – Calcium deficiency

I – Inactivity

U – Underlying medical conditions (like rheumatoid arthritis, hyperthyroidism)

M – Menopause


Triggers for Osteoporosis

Mnemonic: BONE LOSS

B – Breastfeeding

O – Ovarian deficiency

N – Nutritional deficiencies

E – Estrogen deficiency

L – Lifestyle factors (smoking, excessive alcohol)

O – Overuse of medications like proton pump inhibitors

S – Sedentary lifestyle

S – Steroid use


Risk Factors For Osteoporosis

Mnemonic: AGING

A – Age (increased risk with age)

G – Gender (more common in females)

I – Inherited factors (family history of osteoporosis)

N – Nutritional issues (low calcium and vitamin D intake)

G – Gonadal deficiency (low estrogen or testosterone)


Warning Signs of Osteoporosis

Mnemonic: FRACTURE

F – Fragile bones leading to fractures

R – Receding gums

A – Aching bone pain

C – Curved spine

T – Tooth loss

U – Unexplained height loss

R – Reduced grip strength

E – Easily broken bones


Predisposing Factors of Osteoporosis


L – Low calcium intake

I – Inadequate physical activity

F – Family history of osteoporosis

E – Excessive alcohol consumption

S – Smoking

T – Thin or underweight

Y – Young menopause

L – Long-term medication use (steroids, anticonvulsants)

E – Excessive caffeine consumption


Signs & Symptoms of Osteoporosis

Mnemonic: WEAK BONES

W – Weakness (muscular)

E – Easing height (loss of height over time)

A – Acute back pain (from fractured or collapsed vertebra)

K – Kyphosis (stooped posture)

B – Bones that fracture easily

O – Onset of period cessation in women (early menopause)

N – No symptoms in the early stages

E – Endocrine life changes (like menopause)

S – Sudden back pain


Characteristic Findings In Osteoporosis

Mnemonic: DENSITY

D – Decreased bone density

E – Easily fractured bones

N – Normal blood calcium levels

S – Spinal compression fractures

I – Increased bone fragility

T – Thin trabecular patterns of bone

Y – Yielding of bones to minimal trauma


Clinical Features of Osteoporosis

Mnemonic: FRAGILE

F – Fractures with minimal trauma

R – Reduced bone mass

A – Altered posture

G – Gait disturbances due to pain or fractures

I – Increased risk of hip fractures

L – Loss of height

E – Early menopause (as a risk factor)


What Should Be Avoided In Osteoporosis

Mnemonic: NO FALLS

N – No smoking

O – Omit excessive alcohol

F – Fall hazards in the home (remove)

A – Avoid high-impact sports

L – Limit caffeine intake

L – Low calcium diets

S – Sedentary lifestyle


Drugs Used To Treat Osteoporosis

Mnemonic: BISO

B – Bisphosphonates

I – Ibandronate

S – Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators (SERMs)

O – Osteoporosis supplements (calcium, vitamin D)


Drugs To Avoid In Osteoporosis

Mnemonic: ACID

A – Anti-seizure drugs (long-term)

C – Corticosteroids (long-term)

I – Immunosuppressants

D – Drugs affecting calcium absorption (like some proton pump inhibitors)


Radiological Features of Osteoporosis

Mnemonic: X-SLIM

X – X-ray shows decreased bone density

S – Singularity in trabecular patterns

L – Loss of vertebral height

I – Increased fracture risk visible

M – MRI may show microfractures


Diagnostic Tests for Osteoporosis

Mnemonic: DEXA

D – DEXA scan (Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry)

E – Examination of biochemical markers for bone turnover

X – X-rays for fracture detection

A – Assessment of fall risk and physical function


Laboratory Findings In Osteoporosis

Mnemonic: BLOOD

B – Bone turnover markers (like NTX, CTX)

L – Low vitamin D levels

O – Osteocalcin (another marker for bone formation)

O – Optional genetic testing for predisposition

D – Densitometry results (from DEXA scan)


Complications of Osteoporosis

Mnemonic: BREAK

B – Bone fractures, especially in the hip, spine, and wrist

R – Reduced quality of life

E – Elderly patients more susceptible to complications

A – Altered body shape (due to vertebral fractures)

K – Kyphosis and height loss


Differential Diagnosis of Osteoporosis


O – Osteomalacia (soft bones due to vitamin D deficiency)

T – Tumors (bone metastases)

H – Hyperparathyroidism

E – Endocrine disorders (like Cushing’s syndrome)

R – Rheumatoid arthritis

BBone marrow disorders

O – Osteopenia (precursor to osteoporosis)

N – Nutritional deficiencies (affecting bone health)

E – End-stage renal disease

S – Secondary causes of bone loss (medications, diseases)

Dr. Arin Nandi

Passionate About Medical Science & Helping Future Doctors Achieve Top Ranks In Medical Exams. He is professionally a dentist as well as a public health expert from JIPMER (1), (2)working in health department