Here is a quick mnemonic “OROPHARYNGEAL“ to remember about Oropharyngeal Dysphagia
This can be valuable for patients as well as medical doctors, nurses & students doing their clinical rounds. You can also find it very useful for med exams like USMLE, NExT Medical Step 1&2, MBBS, NEET PG, INI-CET, FMGE,MCAT & NCLEX exams
Oropharyngeal Dysphagia : How To Remember Easily ?
- O: Oral and Pharyngeal (Oropharyngeal) Dysphagia – Oral-phase dysphagia is associated with poor bolus formation and control.
- R: Retention – Food may have prolonged retention within the oral cavity and may seep out of the mouth.
- O: Obstruction – Poor bolus control may lead to premature spillage of food into the hypopharynx with resultant aspiration or regurgitation.
- P: Pharyngeal-phase Dysphagia – Retention of food in the pharynx due to poor tongue or pharyngeal propulsion or obstruction at the UES.
- H: Hoarseness and Cranial Nerve Dysfunction – Signs and symptoms of concomitant hoarseness or cranial nerve dysfunction may be associated with oropharyngeal dysphagia.
- A: Aspiration and Malnutrition – Neurogenic dysphagia is a major source of morbidity related to aspiration and malnutrition.
- R: Radiation and Surgery – Iatrogenic causes, including surgery and radiation, are common factors leading to oropharyngeal dysphagia.
- Y: Yes, Neurologic and Structural Pathologies – Neurologic and structural causes are most common for oropharyngeal dysphagia.
- N: Neuromuscular Disorders – Cricopharyngeal bars may be secondary to other neuromuscular disorders that impair the opening of the UES.
- G: Gastrointestinal Pathology – Oropharyngeal structural lesions like Zenker’s diverticulum, cricopharyngeal bar, and neoplasia can cause dysphagia.
- E: Evaluation – Rapid-sequence fluoroscopy is necessary to evaluate functional abnormalities and detect bolus retention or aspiration.
- A: Adequate Examination – Conscious and cooperative patients are required for a thorough fluoroscopic examination.
- L: Laryngoscopic Examination – Structural abnormalities of the oropharynx should be assessed by direct laryngoscopic examination.
Mnemonic : OROPHARYNGEAL