Non–ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Mnemonic

Here are all the mnemonics you ever wanted on ⚡Non–ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction⚡. These mnemonics covers all aspects of the disease/health condition 

Causes of NSTEMI
Mnemonic: “CARDS”
C – Coronary artery spasm
A – Atherosclerosis
R – Recreational drug use (like cocaine)
D – Dissection of the coronary artery
S – Severe anemia


Triggers for NSTEMI
Mnemonic: “STRESS”
S – Severe physical stress
T – Trauma
R – Respiratory failure
E – Emotional distress
S – Surgery
S – Sepsis


Risk Factors for NSTEMI
H – Hypertension
Y – Years (age, especially older)
P – Peripheral artery disease
E – Elevated cholesterol
R – Reduced physical activity
T – Tobacco use
E – Excessive alcohol use
N – Nutrition poor
S – Stress (chronic)
I – Insulin resistance (Diabetes)
V – Visceral obesity
E – End-stage renal disease


Warning Signs of NSTEMI
Mnemonic: “CHEST PAIN
C – Chest discomfort or pain
H – Heartburn-like feeling
E – Excessive sweating
S – Shortness of breath
T – Tiredness
P – Pain in arms, neck, jaw, or back
A – Anxiety or feeling of doom
I – Irregular heartbeat
N – Nausea or vomiting


Predisposing Factors of NSTEMI
Mnemonic: “AGED”
A – Age (older age)
G – Genetic predisposition
E – Excessive stress (emotional/physical)
D – Diabetes mellitus


Signs & Symptoms of NSTEMI
Mnemonic: “PAINFUL”
P – Paleness
A – Angina (chest pain)
I – Irregular heartbeats
N – Nausea
F – Fatigue
U – Uncomfortable breath (shortness of breath)
L – Lightheadedness


Characteristic Findings in NSTEMI
Mnemonic: “ELECTRO”
E – ECG changes (ST depression, T-wave inversion)
L – Leukocytosis
E – Elevated cardiac biomarkers (troponin, CK-MB)
C – Chest pain
T – Tachycardia or Bradycardia
R – Risk factors presence (like hypertension, diabetes)
O – Oxygen saturation drop


Clinical Features of NSTEMI
Mnemonic: “DISCOMFORT”
D – Dizziness
I – Indigestion sensation
S – Sweating excessively
C – Chest pain (pressure, squeezing)
O – Oxygenation difficulty (shortness of breath)
M – Malaise
F – Fear (sense of impending doom)
O – Onset of symptoms (sudden)
R – Radiation of pain (to arm, neck, jaw)
T – Tachycardia or Bradycardia


What Should Be Avoided in NSTEMI
Mnemonic: “NO STRESS”
N – Nicotine (smoking)
O – Overexertion (strenuous activities)
S – Stress (emotional/physical)
T – Trans fat and unhealthy diet
R – Recreational drug use
E – Excessive alcohol consumption
S – Skipping medications
S – Saturated fats


Drugs Used to Treat NSTEMI
Mnemonic: “BACC”
B – Beta-blockers
A – ACE inhibitors
C – Clopidogrel or other antiplatelets
C – Cholesterol-lowering drugs (statins)


Drugs to Avoid in NSTEMI
Mnemonic: “CNS”
C – Cocaine or other recreational drugs
N – NSAIDs (can increase cardiac risk)
S – Stimulants (like some decongestants)


Radiological Features of NSTEMI
Mnemonic: “CLEAR”
C – Coronary angiography showing blockage
L – Left ventricular dysfunction on Echocardiogram
E – Ejection fraction may be reduced
A – Atherosclerotic plaques visible
R – Reduced blood flow (ischemia)


Diagnostic Tests for NSTEMI
Mnemonic: “TEEC”
T – Troponin levels (elevated)
E – ECG (electrocardiogram changes)
E – Echocardiography
C – Coronary angiography


Laboratory Findings in NSTEMI
Mnemonic: “HEART LABS”
H – Hemoglobin (may be low)
E – Elevated cardiac enzymes (troponin, CK-MB)
A – Altered lipid profile
R – Renal function tests
T – Troponin I or T (elevated)
L – Liver enzymes (may be altered)
A – Arterial blood gases
B – B-type Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) elevated
S – Serum electrolytes


Complications of NSTEMI
Mnemonic: “FATAL”
F – Failure of the heart (heart failure)
A – Arrhythmias
T – Thromboembolism
A – Angina (unstable)
L – Left ventricular dysfunction


Differential Diagnosis of NSTEMI
Mnemonic: “HEART PAINS”
H – Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
E – Esophageal spasm
A – Aortic dissection
R – Reflux (GERD)
T – Tension pneumothorax
P – Pulmonary embolism
A – Angina (stable)
I – Indigestion
N – Neurological conditions (like panic attacks)
S – Sepsis

Dr. Arin Nandi

Passionate About Medical Science & Helping Future Doctors Achieve Top Ranks In Medical Exams. He is professionally a dentist as well as a public health expert from JIPMER (1), (2)working in health department