Nephrotic Syndrome Mnemonics

Here are all the mnemonics you ever wanted on ⚡Nephrolithiasis⚡. These mnemonics covers all aspects of the disease/health condition 

Causes of Nephrotic Syndrome
Mnemonic: TIGERS

T – Trichinosis (a parasitic disease)

I – Idiopathic causes

G – Glomerulonephritis (a type of kidney disease)

E – Endocrine disorders

R – Renal vein thrombosis

S – Systemic lupus erythematosus


Triggers for Nephrotic Syndrome
Mnemonic: CLAWS

C – Certain medications (e.g., NSAIDs)

L – Lupus flare-ups

A – Allergic reactions

W – Weight gain/obesity

S – Stress


Risk Factors For Nephrotic Syndrome
Mnemonic: PANDAS

P – Poorly controlled diabetes

A – Autoimmune diseases

N – Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use

D – Diseases of the kidneys

A – Age (more common in children)

S – Specific genetic mutations


Warning Signs of Nephrotic Syndrome
Mnemonic: SWELL

S – Swelling in legs, ankles, feet

W – Weight gain (rapid)

E – Excessive frothy urine

L – Loss of appetite

L – Lethargy


Predisposing Factors of Nephrotic Syndrome
Mnemonic: BIRDS

B – Blood clotting disorders

I – Infections (like Hepatitis B and C)

R – Recent surgery

D – Diabetes

S – Specific medications (like NSAIDs)


Signs & Symptoms of Nephrotic Syndrome
Mnemonic: WATER

W – Weight gain (due to fluid retention)

A – Appetite decrease

T – Tiredness

E – Edema (swelling)

R – Reduced urine output


Characteristic Findings In Nephrotic Syndrome
Mnemonic: PROTEIN

P – Proteinuria (high levels of protein in urine)

R – Reduced albumin in blood

O – Oedema

T – Thrombosis risk increased

E – Elevated cholesterol levels

I – Immunoglobulin levels decreased

N – Nitrogen retention (as BUN – Blood Urea Nitrogen)


Clinical Features of Nephrotic Syndrome
Mnemonic: FOAMY

F – Foamy urine

O – Oedema

A – Anorexia

M – Malaise

Y – Yielding low albumin levels


What Should Be Avoided In Nephrotic Syndrome
Mnemonic: SALT

S – Salt (high sodium diet)

A – Alcohol

L – Low protein diets

T – Tobacco use


Drugs Used To Treat Nephrotic Syndrome
Mnemonic: CARES

C – Corticosteroids

A – ACE inhibitors

R – Rituximab (in specific cases)

E – Edema-treating diuretics

S – Statins (for cholesterol management)


Drugs To Avoid In Nephrotic Syndrome
Mnemonic: HARMS

H – Herbal supplements (unregulated, potential nephrotoxicity)

A – Aminoglycosides (antibiotics with nephrotoxic potential)

R – Radiocontrast agents (can worsen kidney function)

M – NSAIDs (Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs)

S – Steroids (long-term, high-dose use)


Radiological Features of Nephrotic Syndrome
Mnemonic: CLEAR

C – Consistently enlarged kidneys

L – Loss of corticomedullary differentiation

E – Echogenicity increased in kidneys

A – Atrophy signs (in chronic cases)

R – Renal vein thrombosis indications


Diagnostic Tests for Nephrotic Syndrome
Mnemonic: URINE

U – Urinalysis (for protein, casts)

R – Renal biopsy (for definitive diagnosis)

I – Imaging tests (Ultrasound, CT, MRI)

N – Nephrological blood tests (creatinine, BUN)

E – Electrolyte balance assessment


Laboratory Findings In Nephrotic Syndrome
Mnemonic: LIPID

L – Low serum albumin

I – Increased cholesterol and triglycerides

P – Proteinuria

I – Immune function decrease (hypogammaglobulinemia)

D – Decreased serum iron


Complications of Nephrotic Syndrome
Mnemonic: THROMB

T – Thrombosis (due to hypercoagulability)

H – Hypertension

R – Renal failure (acute or chronic)

O – Osteoporosis (long-term complication)

M – Malnutrition (due to protein loss)

B – Bacterial infections (increased susceptibility)


Differential Diagnosis of Nephrotic Syndrome
Mnemonic: KIDNEYS

K – Kidney diseases (other primary renal diseases)

I – Inflammatory processes (like lupus nephritis)

D – Diabetic nephropathy

N – Neoplasms (kidney cancer)

E – Endocarditis (embolic phenomena)

Y – Yellow fever and other systemic infections

S – Sarcoidosis and other granulomatous diseases


Dr. Arin Nandi

Passionate About Medical Science & Helping Future Doctors Achieve Top Ranks In Medical Exams. He is professionally a dentist as well as a public health expert from JIPMER (1), (2)working in health department