Nephrolithiasis MNEMONICS

Here are all the mnemonics you ever wanted on ⚡Nephrolithiasis⚡. These mnemonics covers all aspects of the disease/health condition 

Causes of Nephrolithiasis
Mnemonic: “STONES”
S – Supersaturation of urine
T – Too little water intake
O – Obesity
N – Nutritional factors (high salt, high protein diets)
E – Endocrine disorders (hyperparathyroidism)
S – Sedentary lifestyle


Triggers for Nephrolithiasis
Mnemonic: “HARD UP”
H – High sodium intake
A – Alcohol excess
R – Reduced fluid intake
D – Diet rich in oxalate
U – Urinary tract infections
P – Physical inactivity


Risk Factors for Nephrolithiasis
Mnemonic: “KIDNEY RISK
K – Kidney diseases (like cystic kidney diseases)
I – Inherited disorders (like cystinuria)
D – Dehydration
N – Nutrition (high oxalate, high protein diet)
E – Excess body weight
Y – Years (age, usually 30-60)
R – Recurrent urinary tract infections
I – Intestinal bypass or chronic diarrhea
S – Sedentary lifestyle
K – Kidney structural abnormalities


Warning Signs of Nephrolithiasis
Mnemonic: “PAIN WAVE”
P – Pain in the back or side (renal colic)
A – Abnormal urine color
I – Increased frequency of urination
N – Nausea
W – Waves of pain radiating to the lower abdomen and groin
A – Anuria or oliguria (if urinary tract is blocked)
V – Vomiting
E – Elevated body temperature (if infection is present)


Predisposing Factors of Nephrolithiasis
Mnemonic: “STONE MAKERS”
S – Sedentary lifestyle
T – Too much calcium intake
O – Obesity
N – Not enough fluid intake
E – Excess vitamin D
M – Medications (like diuretics, calcium-based antacids)
A – Anatomic urinary tract abnormalities
K – Kidney diseases
E – Excessive intake of oxalate-rich foods
R – Reduced urinary volume
S – Sodium high in diet


Signs & Symptoms of Nephrolithiasis
Mnemonic: “KIDNEY PAIN”
K – Kidney pain or flank pain
I – Increased urgency to urinate
D – Discomfort in abdomen
N – Nausea
E – Excruciating pain
Y – Yellow or brown urine (if blood is present)
P – Painful urination
A – Abnormal urine odor
I – Intermittent pain (comes and goes)
N – Nephrolithiasis


Characteristic Findings in Nephrolithiasis
Mnemonic: “CALCIUM”
C – Crystals in urine
A – Abdominal or flank pain
L – Low urine volume
C – Cloudy urine
I – Increased frequency of urination
U – Urine with blood (hematuria)
M – Microscopic or gross hematuria


Clinical Features of Nephrolithiasis
Mnemonic: “STONE CLINIC”
S – Sharp pain in the back or side
T – Trouble with urination
O – Oliguria (low urine output)
N – Nausea with or without vomiting
E – Elevated temperature (fever)
C – Colicky nature of pain
L – Loin to groin radiation of pain
I – Intermittent pain
N – Nocturia (increased urination at night)
I – Infection signs if present (fever, malaise)
C – Crystalluria (crystals in urine)


What Should Be Avoided in Nephrolithiasis
Mnemonic: “AVOID STONE”
A – Alcohol
V – Very high protein diets
O – Oxalate-rich foods (like spinach, nuts)
I – Insufficient water intake
D – Diets high in salt
S – Sedentary lifestyle
T – Tobacco smoking
O – Overuse of calcium supplements
N – NSAIDs (can affect kidney function)
E – Excessive vitamin C (can increase oxalate in urine)


Drugs Used to Treat Nephrolithiasis
Mnemonic: “STONE AWAY”
S – Stone-expelling drugs (like tamsulosin)
T – Thiazide diuretics (to prevent calcium stones)
O – Opioids (for pain control)
N – NSAIDs (for pain control)
E – Electrolytes (if needed for balance)
A – Alkalinizing agents (for uric acid stones)
W – Water (increase fluid intake)
A – Antibiotics (if infection is present)
Y – Y-Alpha blockers (to relax ureter muscles)


Drugs to Avoid in Nephrolithiasis
Mnemonic: “STONES HURT”
S – Supplements with high calcium
T – Topical vitamin D in excess
O – Oxalate-rich vitamin supplements
N – Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
E – Excessive vitamin C
S – Steroids
H – High-dose vitamin A
U – Uricosuric drugs (in certain types of stones)
R – Recreational drugs
T – Too much antacid intake


Radiological Features of Nephrolithiasis
Mnemonic: “RADIO STONE”
R – Radiopaque stones on X-ray
A – Abdominal CT scan showing stones
D – Dilatation of the ureters
I – Intravenous pyelogram (IVP) findings
O – Obstruction visible on ultrasound
S – Stone’s shadow on ultrasound
T – Twinkling artifact on Doppler ultrasound
O – Opacity changes with stone position
N – Non-contrast spiral CT for definitive diagnosis
E – Excretory urography showing delayed excretion


Diagnostic Tests for Nephrolithiasis
Mnemonic: “TEST FOR STONE”
T – Tomography (CT scan)
E – Electrophoresis (for cystinuria)
S – Stone analysis (after passing)
T – Twenty-four-hour urine collection (for stone-forming minerals)
F – Full blood count (to check for infection)
O – Observation of urine for passed stones
R – Renal function tests
S – Serum calcium, uric acid levels
T – Temperature (fever indicates infection)
O – Oxalate levels in blood/urine
N – Nitrogen waste products in blood (BUN, creatinine)
E – Electrolyte balance


Laboratory Findings in Nephrolithiasis
Mnemonic: “LAB STONE”
L – Leukocytosis (if infection is present)
A – Altered renal function tests
B – Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine elevation
S – Serum electrolytes imbalance
T – Trace minerals in urine (calcium, oxalate)
O – Oxalate or uric acid elevation in urine
N – Nitrite positive (if UTI is present)
E – Elevated calcium in blood/urine (hypercalciuria)


Complications of Nephrolithiasis
C – Chronic kidney disease
O – Obstruction of the urinary tract
M – Microscopic or gross hematuria
P – Pyelonephritis (kidney infection)
L – Loss of kidney function
I – Intractable pain
C – Cyst formation (in the kidney)
A – Acute urinary retention
T – Tubular damage
E – Elevated blood pressure (hypertension)
D – Disturbance in electrolyte balance


Differential Diagnosis of Nephrolithiasis
D – Diverticulitis
I – Inflammatory bowel disease
F – Fibroids or other gynecological conditions
F – Functional gastrointestinal disorders
E – Ectopic pregnancy (in women)
R – Renal cell carcinoma
E – Endometriosis (in women)
N – Nephrocalcinosis
T – Tumor in the urinary tract
P – Pyelonephritis
A – Appendicitis
I – Intestinal obstruction
N – Neurogenic bladder
S – Spinal disorders

Dr. Arin Nandi

Passionate About Medical Science & Helping Future Doctors Achieve Top Ranks In Medical Exams. He is professionally a dentist as well as a public health expert from JIPMER (1), (2)working in health department