You are currently viewing [Very Cool] Mnemonic : Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a type of liver cancer that affects the cells of the liver (hepatocytes). It is one of the most common types of cancer in the world and is usually caused by long-term liver diseases like cirrhosis, hepatitis B and C, and drinking too much alcohol.

There may be stomach pain, weight loss, and jaundice as signs. HCC is more likely to be cured if it is found and treated early. This can be done with regular liver function tests and imaging studies.

So checkout these easy to remember mnemonics about hepatocellular carcinoma that will make your medical studies a lot easier

1) Risk Factors of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

  • Anabolic steroid use
  • Tobacco smoking
  • Type 2 diabetes
  • Aflatoxin exposure
  • Chronic hepatitis B or C virus infection
  • Hemochromatosis
  • Cirrhosis
  • Alcohol abuse
  • Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

MnemonicATTACHment CAN be dangerous

Mind Map / Concept Map /Memory Aid/ Mnemonic To Remember Risk Factors of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

2) Pathogenesis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

  • Chronic inflammation
  • Oxidative stress
  • Mutations in tumor suppressor genes (TP53, CTNNB1)
  • Alterations in signaling pathways (PI3K/AKT/mTOR, Wnt/β-catenin)
  • Angiogenesis


Mind Map / Concept Map /Memory Aid/ Mnemonic To Remember Pathogenesis  of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

3) Clinical presentation of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

  • Abdominal pain or discomfort
  • Jaundice
  • Anorexia
  • Weight loss
  • Ascites (fluid accumulation in the abdominal cavity)
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Fatigue
  • Anemia
  • Enlarged liver
  • Easy bruising or bleeding.

Mnemonic: A JAWAN never FAlls before EnEmy




Mind Map / Concept Map /Memory Aid/ Mnemonic To Remember Clinical presentation of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

4) Diagnostic Tests In Hepatocellular Carcinoma

  • Ultrasound
  • Computed Tomography (CT)
  • Liver biopsy
  • Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
  • Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
  • Arteriography.


Mnemonic: can U CLAMP A car ?



Mind Map / Concept Map /Memory Aid/ Mnemonic To Remember Diagnostic Tests in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

5) Staging In Hepatocellular Carcinoma

  • American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) TNM staging system
  • Child-Pugh score
  • Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level.
  • Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging system


Mnemonic: A CAB



Mind Map / Concept Map /Memory Aid/ Mnemonic To Remember Staging In Hepatocellular Carcinoma

6) Pathological Types of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

  • Classic HCC
  • Fibrolamellar HCC
  • Cholangiocarcinoma-like HCC
  • Poorly differentiated HCC
  • Clear cell HCC
  • Mixed HCC


MnemonicCan you FetCh me some ParaCetaMol ?


Mind Map / Concept Map /Memory Aid/ Mnemonic to Remember Pathological Types of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

7) Treatment Options of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

  • Microwave ablation
  • Radiofrequency ablation (RFA)
  • Surgery (Liver resection or transplantation)
  • Systemic chemotherapy ( Sorafenib, Lenvatinib, Regorafenib)
  • Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE)
  • Radiation therapy (Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT))
  • Immunotherapy (Interferon, T-cell therapy)
  • Cryotherapy
  • Targeted therapy (Tyrosine kinase inhibitors)

Mnemonic:   MRS. STRICT

Mind Map / Concept Map /Memory Aid/ Mnemonic To Remember Treatment Options of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

8) Complications of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

  • Bile duct obstruction
  • Hepatic encephalopathy
  • Portal hypertension
  • Cirrhosis
  • Infections
  • Metastasis
  • Peritonitis
  • Ascites
  • Coagulopathy
  • Thrombocytopenia

MnemonicBe HyPer, Create IMPACT

Mind Map / Concept Map /Memory Aid/ Mnemonic to Remember Complications of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

9) Differential Diagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

  • Cholangiocarcinoma
  • Cirrhosis
  • Hemangioma
  • Biliary tract carcinoma
  • Fatty liver disease
  • Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma
  • Metastatic liver disease
  • Inflammatory hepatic lesions.
  • Schwannoma
  • Hepatic adenoma
  • Angiosarcoma
  • Primary liver lymphoma
  • Focal nodular hyperplasia
  • Cavernous hemangioma


MnemonicCatCH BluFF before MISHAP or you will get F*C*ed


Mind Map / Concept Map /Memory Aid/ Mnemonic to Remember Differential Diagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Dr. Arin Nandi

Passionate About Medical Science & Helping Future Doctors Achieve Top Ranks In Medical Exams. He is professionally a dentist as well as a public health expert from JIPMER (1), (2)working in health department