Clubbing refers to changes in the skin directly under and around the fingernails and toenails, and it can be a symptom of a number of different diseases. Changes can also be seen in the nails.
Chronically low blood oxygen levels have been linked to clubbing. This is observable in conditions like cystic fibrosis and congenital cyanotic heart disease.
How To Remember Clubbing: Causes ?
- Cyanotic heart disease
- Lung disease (hypoxia, lung cancer, bronchiectasis, cystic fibrosis)
- Ulcerative Cholitis/Crohn’s disease
- Biliary cirrhosis
- Birth defect (harmless)
- Infective endocarditis
- Neoplasm (esp. Hodgkins)
- GI malabsorption
Mind Map / Concept Map /Memory Aid/ Mnemonic To Remember Clubbing Causes
Remember this for your NExT Medical Exit Test exam & USMLE, Pre-Med, NCLEX exams.
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Dr. Arin Nandi
Passionate About Medical Science & Helping Future Doctors Achieve Top Ranks In Medical Exams. He is professionally a dentist as well as a public health expert from JIPMER working in govt.health department