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Here are all the mnemonics you ever wanted on Malignant Hyperthermia. These mnemonics covers all aspects of the disease/health condition 

Causes of Malignant Hyperthermia:
Mnemonic: “DANTES “
D – Dantrolene (treatment, ironically)
A – Anesthetics (volatile, like halothane)
N – Neuromuscular blocking agents (like succinylcholine)
T – Temperature spike
E – Exertion (in rare cases)
S – Susceptibility (genetic predisposition)


Triggers for Malignant Hyperthermia:
Mnemonic: “GASPED”
G – General anesthesia
A – Adrenaline surge
S – Stress (physical or emotional)
P – Pharmacological agents (like inhaled anesthetics)
E – Exercise (in rare cases)
D – Drugs (certain muscle relaxants)


Risk Factors For Malignant Hyperthermia:
Mnemonic: “FAMILY Risk”
F – Family history
A – Anesthetic history (previous reactions)
M – Muscular build
I – Inherited genetic mutations
L – Lethargy post-anesthesia (in previous experiences)
Y – Youth (common in younger patients)
Risk – Reactions in surgery


Warning Signs of Malignant Hyperthermia:
Mnemonic: “HOT CRAMP”
H – Hyperthermia
O – Oxygen consumption increase
T – Tachycardia
C – CO2 rise (end-tidal)
R – Rigidity of muscles
A – Acidosis
M – Myoglobinuria
P – Potassium increase (hyperkalemia)


Predisposing Factors of Malignant Hyperthermia:
Mnemonic: “MUSCLE Traits”
M – Muscular disorders (e.g., myotonia)
U – Unusual reaction to anesthesia (history)
S – Striking muscle build
C – Creatine kinase levels (elevated)
L – Leg cramps (history of)
E – Exercise intolerance
Traits – Genetic traits (RYR1 gene mutation)


Signs & Symptoms of Malignant Hyperthermia:
Mnemonic: “FEVERISH”
F – Fever (high body temperature)
E – Elevated heart rate
V – Ventilation difficulty (rapid breathing)
E – Excessive sweating
R – Rigid muscles
I – Increased metabolic rate
S – Skin mottling
H – Hyperkalemia


Characteristic Findings In Malignant Hyperthermia:
Mnemonic: “BURNED”
B – Body temperature rise
U – Uncontrollable muscle contraction
R – Respiratory acidosis
N – Nervous system signs (e.g., confusion)
E – Elevated CK (Creatine Kinase)
D – Dark urine (myoglobinuria)


What Should Be Avoided In Malignant Hyperthermia:
Mnemonic: “AVOID GAS”
A – Anesthetic gases (volatile)
V – Volatile agents
O – Overexertion (in susceptible individuals)
I – Ignoring symptoms
D – Dehydration
GAS – General Anesthetic Susceptibles


Drugs Used To Treat Malignant Hyperthermia:
Mnemonic: “DAN’s Life Saving”
D – Dantrolene
A – Aggressive cooling measures
N – Normal saline (IV for hydration)
Life – Supportive life-saving measures (like oxygen therapy)
Saving – Symptom management (like treating acidosis)


Drugs To Avoid In Malignant Hyperthermia:
Mnemonic: “STOP VA”
S – Succinylcholine
T – Triggers (known MH triggers)
O – Other muscle relaxants (potentially triggering)
P – Potent volatile anesthetics
V – Volatile agents (like halothane)
A – Aminoglycoside antibiotics (in certain contexts)


Diagnostic Tests for Malignant Hyperthermia:
Mnemonic: “MUSCLE Test”
M – Muscle biopsy
U – Understanding family history
S – Screening genetic test (RYR1 gene mutation)
C – CK levels (Creatine Kinase)
L – Lab tests for metabolic changes
E – Exercise-induced muscle contraction test
Test – Testing for susceptibility (caffeine-halothane contracture test)


Laboratory Findings In Malignant Hyperthermia:
Mnemonic: “LAB Heat”
L – Lactic acidosis
A – Acid-base imbalance
B – Blood gas abnormalities
Heat – Hyperthermia indicators (like elevated temperature)


Contraindications of Drugs in Malignant Hyperthermia:
Mnemonic: “NO GAS Here”
N – Neuromuscular blocking drugs (like succinylcholine)
O – Overuse of dantrolene
GAS – General anesthetic gases (volatile)
Here – Here denotes avoiding these drugs in MH-susceptible patients


Side effects of Drugs in Malignant Hyperthermia:
Mnemonic: “SIDE Effects”
S – Swelling (from dantrolene IV)
I – Inadequate breathing (respiratory depression)
D – Dizziness (post-medication)
E – Electrolyte imbalance
Effects – Effects of inappropriate drug use in MH


Clinical Features of Malignant Hyperthermia:
Mnemonic: “CRAMPED”
C – Core temperature increase
R – Rhabdomyolysis
A – Acidosis (metabolic and respiratory)
M – Muscle rigidity
P – Pyrexia (fever)
E – Elevated heart rate
D – Dysrhythmia (cardiac)


Complications of Malignant Hyperthermia:
C – Cardiac arrest
O – Organ failure
M – Muscle necrosis
P – Permanent neurological damage
L – Lactic acidosis
I – Irregular heartbeat
C – Coagulopathy
A – Acute renal failure
T – Temperature regulation problems
I – Intensive care required
O – Oxygenation problems
N – Neurological deficits


Differential Diagnosis of Malignant Hyperthermia:
Mnemonic: “DIFFERENT”
D – Drug-induced hyperthermia
I – Infection (sepsis)
F – Febrile illness
F – Fever of unknown origin
E – Electrolyte imbalance
R – Rhabdomyolysis (other causes)
E – Endocrine disorders (like thyroid storm)
N – Neuroleptic malignant syndrome
T – Toxins (exposure to certain toxins)

Dr. Arin Nandi

Passionate About Medical Science & Helping Future Doctors Achieve Top Ranks In Medical Exams. He is professionally a dentist as well as a public health expert from JIPMER (1), (2)working in health department