You are currently viewing Macular Degeneration – Mnemonic

Here is a quick mnemonic “MACULAR DEGENERATION to remember about Macular Degeneration

This can be valuable for patients as well as medical doctors, nurses & students doing their clinical rounds. You can also find it very useful for med exams like USMLE, MBBS, NEET PG, FMGE, NExT, MCAT & NCLEX exams

Macular Degeneration: How To Remember Easily ?

  • M – Macular Degeneration is a major cause of gradual, painless, bilateral central visual loss in the elderly.
  • A – Accumulation of extracellular deposits called drusen underneath the retinal pigment epithelium is a characteristic feature of nonexudative macular degeneration.
  • C – Complement factor H gene variants are associated with susceptibility to macular degeneration.
  • U – The nonexudative form of macular degeneration is characterized by the accumulation of drusen, which are pleomorphic and appear as small discrete yellow lesions clustered in the macula.
  • L – Leakage from neovascular vessels in exudative macular degeneration causes elevation of the retina and leads to metamorphopsia and blurring of vision.
  • A – Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents, such as bevacizumab, ranibizumab, aflibercept, or brolucizumab, are used for intraocular injection to treat exudative macular degeneration.
  • R – Retinal pigment epithelial detachment and atrophy contribute to visual loss in nonexudative macular degeneration.
  • D – Dry macular degeneration can be retarded by treatment with vitamins C and E, beta-carotene, and zinc.
  • E – Exudative macular degeneration occurs in only a minority of patients and is characterized by the growth of neovascular vessels from the choroid.
  • G – Genetic variants in complement factor H, an inhibitor of the alternative complement pathway, are associated with susceptibility to macular degeneration.
  • E – Extracellular deposits called drusen play a role in the pathogenesis of macular degeneration.
  • N – Neovascular membranes in exudative macular degeneration can be detected using fluorescein angiography and OCT.
  • E – Elevation of the retina caused by neovascular vessels leads to distortion (metamorphopsia) and blurring of vision.
  • R – Regression of neovascular membranes can be achieved by intraocular injection of anti-VEGF agents, resulting in improved visual acuity and treatment of exudative macular degeneration.
  • A – Atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium contributes to visual loss in nonexudative macular degeneration.
  • T – Treatment of exudative macular degeneration with anti-VEGF agents involves direct injection into the vitreous cavity on a monthly basis.
  • I – Inflammation may play a role in the pathogenesis of both forms of macular degeneration.
  • O – Ophthalmoscopy reveals the presence of pleomorphic drusen in the macula in nonexudative macular degeneration.
  • N – Neovascular membranes can lead to bleeding, causing acute visual loss in some cases.


Dr. Arin Nandi

Passionate About Medical Science & Helping Future Doctors Achieve Top Ranks In Medical Exams. He is professionally a dentist as well as a public health expert from JIPMER (1), (2)working in health department