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Here are all the mnemonics you ever wanted on ⚡Intracerebral Hemorrhage⚡. These mnemonics covers all aspects of the disease/health condition 

Causes of Intracerebral Hemorrhage

Mnemonic: BRAIN LEAK

B – Blood pressure (high)

R – Ruptured aneurysms

A – Amyloid angiopathy

I – Injury (head trauma)

N – Neoplasms (brain tumors)

L – Lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol)

E – Excessive anticoagulation

A – Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs)

K – Koagulopathy (bleeding disorders)


Triggers for Intracerebral Hemorrhage

Mnemonic: PRESSURE

P – Physical exertion

R – Raised blood pressure

E – Emotional stress

S – Substance abuse (cocaine, methamphetamine)

S – Stroke history

U – Uncontrolled anticoagulation

R – Recreational drug use

E – Excessive alcohol consumption


Risk Factors For Intracerebral Hemorrhage


H – Hypertension

Y – Young age with unhealthy lifestyle

P – Previous hemorrhage

E – Ethnicity (higher in African Americans and Asians)

R – Recreational drug use

T – Tobacco use

E – Elderly

N – Non-compliance with antihypertensives

S – Structural cerebral vascular anomalies

E – Excessive alcohol use


Warning Signs of Intracerebral Hemorrhage


S – Sudden headache

U – Unconsciousness or altered consciousness

D – Dizziness

D – Difficulty speaking

E – Eye vision problems

N – Nausea or vomiting

D – Difficulty walking

R – Rapid onset symptoms

O – One-sided weakness

P – Paresthesia or numbness


Predisposing Factors of Intracerebral Hemorrhage

Mnemonic: BLOOD RISK

B – Blood thinners

L – Liver disease

O – Obesity

O – Older age

D – Drug abuse (cocaine, amphetamines)

R – Renal disease

I – Inherited bleeding disorders

S – Smoking

K – Known vascular abnormalities


Signs & Symptoms of Intracerebral Hemorrhage

Mnemonic: HEAD HURTS

H – Headache (sudden, severe)

E – Eyesight changes (vision loss)

A – Altered consciousness

D – Dizziness or loss of balance

H – Hemiparesis

U – Uncoordinated movement

R – Rapid onset of symptoms

T – Trouble speaking

S – Seizures


Characteristic Findings In Intracerebral Hemorrhage


B – Blood in the brain parenchyma

R – Raised intracranial pressure

A – Altered mental status

I – Irregular pupil size

N – Nausea

D – Decreased level of consciousness

A – Aphasia

M – Motor deficits

A – Asymmetric reflexes

G – Gaze palsy

E – Elevated blood pressure


Clinical Features of Intracerebral Hemorrhage


H – Headache

E – Elevated blood pressure

M – Motor weakness

O – Orientation impaired

RRespiratory changes

R – Reflex asymmetry

H – Hemiplegia/hemiparesis

A – Aphasia if dominant hemisphere involved

G – Gaze deviation

E – Eyesight changes


What Should Be Avoided In Intracerebral Hemorrhage

Mnemonic: AVOID HARM

A – Anticoagulants

V – Vigorous physical activity

O – Overuse of alcohol

I – Illegal drugs

D – Delay in treatment

H – Hypertension (not managing)

A – Aspirin and NSAIDs

R – Risky behaviors

M – Missing routine check-ups


Drugs Used To Treat Intracerebral Hemorrhage


P – Prothrombin complex concentrates (for warfarin reversal)

R – Recombinant factor VIIa

E – Esmolol (for blood pressure control)

S – Statins

S – Steroids (to reduce inflammation)

U – Urapidil (antihypertensive)

R – Reverse anticoagulation (if applicable)

E – Electrolyte correction

M – Mannitol (for cerebral edema)

E – Enalapril (to manage blood pressure)

D – Diuretics (to manage cerebral edema)

S – Sedatives (to manage agitation)


Drugs To Avoid In Intracerebral Hemorrhage



O – Oral anticoagulants

B – Blood thinners (like warfarin, unless reversing)

L – Low molecular weight heparins

O – Opioids (caution in respiratory depression)

O – Over-the-counter painkillers

D – Decongestants (if they elevate blood pressure)

T – Thrombolytics

H – Herbal supplements that affect coagulation

I – Intravenous anticoagulants

N – Non-selective beta blockers


Radiological Features of Intracerebral Hemorrhage

Mnemonic: BRAIN SCAN

B – Bleeding within brain parenchyma

R – Rim of low attenuation around hematoma

A – Asymmetric ventricles if mass effect is present

I – Intraventricular extension of the hemorrhage

N – Non-contrast CT for initial diagnosis

S – Surrounding edema

C – Cerebral atrophy (chronic cases)

A – Angiography to identify vascular anomalies

N – New bleeding on follow-up scans


Diagnostic Tests for Intracerebral Hemorrhage

Mnemonic: CT AND MRI

C – CT scan (non-contrast)

T – Thrombocytopenia check (platelet count)

A – Angiography (if AVM suspected)

N – Neurological exam

D – Doppler ultrasound (for carotid arteries)

M – MRI for detailed imaging

R – Routine blood tests (coagulation profile)

I – Intracranial pressure monitoring


Laboratory Findings In Intracerebral Hemorrhage

Mnemonic: BLOOD TEST

B – Blood pressure (elevated)

L – Low hematocrit (if bleeding is significant)

O – Osmolarity (serum osmolality)

O – Oxygenation status (arterial blood gases)

D – D-dimer (to rule out thrombotic events)

T – Thrombocytopenia (platelet count)

E – Electrolyte imbalance

S – Serum creatinine (kidney function)

T – Troponin (if myocardial injury is suspected)


Complications of Intracerebral Hemorrhage

Mnemonic: BEACH

B – Brain Herniation: A serious complication where brain tissue, cerebrospinal fluid, and blood vessels are moved or pressed away from their usual position inside the skull.

E – Epilepsy: Seizures that may occur as a consequence of the hemorrhage.

A – Aphasia: Difficulty with speaking or understanding language if the hemorrhage affects language areas of the brain.

C – Cerebral Edema: Swelling of brain tissue that can increase intracranial pressure.

H – Hydrocephalus: Accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain’s cavities, potentially leading to increased intracranial pressure.


Differential Diagnosis of Intracerebral Hemorrhage

Mnemonic: STAMP

S – Stroke (Ischemic): A blockage of blood flow to the brain, needing differentiation from hemorrhagic stroke.

T – Tumor: Brain tumors can present with similar symptoms and sometimes bleeding.

A – Arteriovenous Malformation (AVM): Abnormal connections between arteries and veins in the brain that can rupture and bleed.

M – Migraine: Severe headaches that might mimic stroke-like symptoms.

P – Psychogenic Causes: Sometimes, psychological factors can produce physical symptoms that resemble those of a stroke.

Dr. Arin Nandi

Passionate About Medical Science & Helping Future Doctors Achieve Top Ranks In Medical Exams. He is professionally a dentist as well as a public health expert from JIPMER (1), (2)working in health department