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Here are all the mnemonics you ever wanted on Infective Endocarditis⚡Mnemonic⚡. These mnemonics covers all aspects of the disease/health condition 

Causes of Influenza

Mnemonic: FLU VIRUS

F – Family Orthomyxoviridae

L – Low immunity

U – Uncontained aerosols

V – Variants (H1N1, H3N2)

I – Inadequate vaccination

RRespiratory droplets

U – Unwashed hands

S – Seasonal outbreaks


Triggers for Influenza

Mnemonic: COLD WAVE

C – Crowded places

O – Overexertion (weakens immune system)

L – Low humidity environments

D – Direct contact with infected individuals

W – Winter season

A – Air travel

V – Viral exposure

E – Exposure to children (schools, nurseries)


Risk Factors For Influenza

Mnemonic: YOUNG OLD

Y – Young children

O – Older adults (65+)

U – Underlying chronic diseases

N – Nursing home residents

G – Gestation (pregnancy)

O – Obesity

L – Low immunity

D – Diabetics


Warning Signs of Influenza

Mnemonic: BREATH

B – Breathing difficulty

R – Rapid onset of symptoms

E – Elevated fever

A – Aching muscles

T – Tiredness and fatigue

H – Harsh cough


Predisposing Factors of Influenza

Mnemonic: SEASON

S – Season changes

E – Environmental exposure (cold)

A – Air travel

S – School-aged children

O – Occupational exposure (healthcare workers)

N – Non-vaccination


Signs & Symptoms of Influenza

Mnemonic: FACETS

F – Fever and chills

A – Aches (muscle aches)

C – Cough

E – Exhaustion (fatigue)

T – Throat soreness

S – Sneezing and stuffy nose


Characteristic Findings In Influenza

Mnemonic: HACK

H – High fever

A – Acute onset

C – Cough (dry, persistent)

K – Knockout fatigue


Clinical Features of Influenza

Mnemonic: FLUSH

F – Fever

L – Lethargy

U – Upper respiratory symptoms

S – Sore throat



What Should Be Avoided In Influenza

Mnemonic: CROWD

C – Close contact with sick people

R – Running yourself down (lack of rest)

O – Overusing antibiotics

W – Workplace and school (when symptomatic)

D – Dehydration


Drugs Used To Treat Influenza

Mnemonic: TAN ORZ

T – Tamiflu (Oseltamivir)

A – Amantadine

N – Neuraminidase inhibitors

O – Oseltamivir

R – Rimantadine

Z – Zanamivir


Drugs To Avoid In Influenza

Mnemonic: NO NSAIDs

N – NSAIDs in children (risk of Reye’s syndrome)

O – Over the counter cough suppressants (ineffective)

N – Non-essential medications

S – Steroids (unless for chronic conditions)

A – Antibiotics (unless for secondary infections)

I – Immunosuppressive drugs

D – Decongestants in hypertension

S – Sedatives


Radiological Features of Influenza

Mnemonic: CLEAR X

C – Consolidation (in secondary bacterial pneumonia)

L – Lung hyperinflation

E – Effusions (pleural)

A – Atelectasis

R – Respiratory distress signs

X – X-ray showing diffuse interstitial patterns


Diagnostic Tests for Influenza

Mnemonic: SWAB

S – Swab test (nasopharyngeal)

W – WBC count (may be normal or low)

A – Antigen detection tests

B – Blood cultures (if bacterial superinfection is suspected)


Laboratory Findings In Influenza

Mnemonic: VIRAL LAB

V – Viral culture

I – Increased C-reactive protein (CRP)

R – RT-PCR for influenza

A – Antigen detection

L – Leukopenia or normal leukocyte count

L – Lactic acidosis (in severe cases)

A – Antibody titer increase in convalescent phase

B – Blood gas analysis (in severe cases)


Complications of Influenza


C – Cardiac (myocarditis)

O – Otis media

M – Muscle inflammation (myositis)

P – Pneumonia

L – Lower respiratory tract infections

I – Immune system overreaction

C – CNS involvement (encephalitis)

A – Asthma exacerbation

T – Toxic shock syndrome

E – Exacerbation of chronic conditions

D – Death

F – Fatigue (post-viral)

L – Lung scarring

U – Unmasking of underlying diseases

U – Upper respiratory tract complications


Differential Diagnosis of Influenza

Mnemonic: CATCH IT

C – Common cold

A – Acute bronchitis

T – Tonsillitis

C – COVID-19

H – Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome

IInfectious mononucleosis

T – Tuberculosis

Dr. Arin Nandi

Passionate About Medical Science & Helping Future Doctors Achieve Top Ranks In Medical Exams. He is professionally a dentist as well as a public health expert from JIPMER (1), (2)working in health department