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Here is a quick mnemonic “CONFUSION HISTORY to remember about History Taking In Dementia

This can be valuable for patients as well as medical doctors, nurses & students doing their clinical rounds. You can also find it very useful for med exams like USMLE, MBBS, NEET PG, FMGE, NExT, MCAT & NCLEX exams

History Taking In Dementia : How To Remember Easily ?

  • C – Concentrate on the onset, duration, and tempo of progression.
  • O – Onset of confusion may be due to delirium and should trigger a search for intoxication, infection, or metabolic derangement.
  • N – Nearly 75% of patients with AD begin with memory symptoms.
  • F – FTD is suggested by prominent apathy, compulsivity, and loss of empathy for others.
  • U – Unexplained weight gain or compulsive eating suggests FTD, not AD.
  • S – Slowly progressive memory loss over several years is likely to be AD.
  • I – Initially, early symptoms of AD include anxiety, depression, and difficulty managing money, driving, shopping, etc.
  • O – Other early symptoms of AD include difficulty finding words or navigating.
  • N – Not AD: FTD is suggested by progressive loss of speech fluency and single-word comprehension with relative sparing of memory and visuospatial abilities.
  • H – History of stroke with irregular stepwise progression suggests vascular dementia.
  • I – Incidentally hypertension, atrial fibrillation, peripheral vascular disease, smoking, and diabetes are risk factors for vascular dementia.
  • S – Stroke or neoplasm may cause seizures, which can also occur in AD.
  • T – Tremor, rigidity, and myoclonus suggest CJD.
  • O – Occurrence of seizures may indicate strokes or neoplasm.
  • R – Rapid progression with motor rigidity and myoclonus suggests CJD.
  • Y – Young onset of AD may present with seizures.


Dr. Arin Nandi

Passionate About Medical Science & Helping Future Doctors Achieve Top Ranks In Medical Exams. He is professionally a dentist as well as a public health expert from JIPMER (1), (2)working in health department