You are currently viewing Etiology Of Hemoptysis – Mnemonic

Here is a quick mnemonic “ETIOLOGY HEMOPTYSIS to remember about Etiology Of Hemoptysis

This can be valuable for patients as well as medical doctors, nurses & students doing their clinical rounds. You can also find it very useful for med exams like USMLE, NExT Medical Step 1&2, MBBS, NEET PG, INI-CET, FMGE,MCAT & NCLEX exams

Etiology Of Hemoptysis : How To Remember Easily ?

  • E – (Ectatic vessel) : An ectatic vessel in an airway or a pulmonary arteriovenous malformation can be a source of bleeding.
  • T – (Tuberculosis): Tuberculosis is a common cause of hemoptysis, especially when cavitary disease develops.
  • I – (Infections) : Hemoptysis can be caused by infections such as viral bronchitis, tuberculosis, and fungal lung disease.
  • O – (Other causes) : Other causes of hemoptysis include pulmonary endometriosis, foreign body aspiration, and complications from diagnostic and therapeutic procedures.
  • L – Largely : (Malignancy) Bronchogenic carcinoma and metastases from distant tumors can cause hemoptysis.
  • O – (Other causes) : Hemoptysis can also result from cardiac diseases, pulmonary embolism, and diffuse alveolar hemorrhage.
  • G – (Ground glass opacities) : Diffuse ground glass opacities on chest imaging may indicate hemorrhage due to immune-mediated capillaritis.
  • Y – (Yes, it happens) : Hemoptysis can occur due to a range of factors, including anticoagulation, coagulopathy, and thrombocytopenia.
  • H – (Hemoptysis): Hemoptysis commonly results from infection, malignancy, or vascular disease.
  • E – (Erosion) : The erosion of a pulmonary artery aneurysm into a preexisting cavity can be a rare cause of hemoptysis.
  • M – (Massive hemoptysis) : Massive hemoptysis can be caused by conditions like bronchiectasis, bronchitis, and major vessel erosion.
  • O – (Oral anaerobes) : Oral anaerobes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Klebsiella pneumoniae can cause bleeding through abscesses and necrotizing pneumonia.
  • P – (Paragonimiasis) : Paragonimiasis, often seen in Southeast Asia and China, can mimic tuberculosis and lead to hemoptysis.
  • T – (Toxicity) : Toxicity from substances like cocaine and inhalants can cause diffuse alveolar hemorrhage and hemoptysis.
  • S – (Stem cell transplantation) : Stem cell transplantation can lead to immune-mediated capillaritis and subsequent hemoptysis.
  • I – (Inflammation) : Airway inflammation due to chronic bronchitis and bronchiectasis increases the risk of hemoptysis.
  • S – (Systemic diseases) : Systemic diseases like granulomatosis with polyangiitis and anti-glomerular basement membrane disease can manifest as both hemoptysis and hematuria.
  • I – (Ingestion) : Ingestion of raw crayfish can lead to paragonimiasis and subsequent hemoptysis.
  • S – (Superinfection) : Bacterial superinfection in patients with chronic bronchitis can increase airway inflammation and the potential for bleeding.


Dr. Arin Nandi

Passionate About Medical Science & Helping Future Doctors Achieve Top Ranks In Medical Exams. He is professionally a dentist as well as a public health expert from JIPMER working in department