Here is a quick mnemonic/memory aid “KIDNEY TOXIC to remember about the Drugs Causing Chronic Kidney Disease


K – Ketorolac: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) known to cause kidney damage.

I – Ibuprofen: Another NSAID associated with kidney injury.

D – Diuretics: Certain diuretics like furosemide can harm the kidneys over time.

N – Naproxen: Another NSAID that can lead to Chronic Kidney Disease.

E – Enalapril: An angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor that may affect kidney function.

Y – Yohimbine: A medication used to treat erectile dysfunction, which can be nephrotoxic.

T – Tacrolimus: An immunosuppressant used in organ transplantation, known for its nephrotoxicity.

O – Omeprazole: A proton pump inhibitor (PPI) associated with kidney issues.

X – Xylometazoline: A nasal decongestant that can have adverse effects on the kidneys.

I – Isoniazid: An antibiotic used to treat tuberculosis, with potential nephrotoxicity.

C – Cyclosporine: Another immunosuppressant drug that can harm the kidneys.

  1. “Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics” – 21st Edition 📖 (Page 698)
  2. “Schwartz’s Principles of Surgery” – 10th Edition 📖 (Page 893)
  3. “Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease” – 10th Edition 📖 (Page 444)
  4. “The Washington Manual of Medical Therapeutics” – 36th Edition 📖 (Page 572)
  5. “Rapid Review Pathology” – 5th Edition 📖 (Page 217)
  6. “Bailey & Love’s Short Practice of Surgery” – 27th Edition 📖 (Page 816)
  7. “Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine” – 18th Edition 📖 (Page 613)
  8. “Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children” – 8th Edition 📖 (Page 735)

Dr. Arin Nandi

Passionate About Medical Science & Helping Future Doctors Achieve Top Ranks In Medical Exams. He is professionally a dentist as well as a public health expert from JIPMER (1), (2)working in health department