Here is a quick mnemonic/memory aid “CKD FLAIR to remember about the Characteristic Findings In Chronic Kidney Disease


Characteristic Findings In Chronic Kidney Disease ⚡Mnemonic⚡

C – Creatinine Elevation: Elevated serum creatinine levels are a hallmark of CKD.

K – Kidney Function Decline: CKD is defined by the gradual decline in renal function.

D – Decreased GFR: Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) decreases as kidney function worsens.

F – Fluid and Electrolyte Imbalance: CKD often leads to disturbances in fluid and electrolyte balance.

L – Hypertension: High blood pressure is common in CKD patients.

A – Anemia: CKD can lead to a decrease in erythropoietin production and cause anemia.

I – Increased Proteinuria: Proteinuria is an early sign and a key finding in CKD.

R – Renal Osteodystrophy: CKD can result in bone mineral abnormalities and osteoporosis.

  1. “Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine” – 22nd Edition 📖 Page 554
  2. “Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease” – 11th Edition 📖 Page 425
  3. “Bailey & Love’s Short Practice of Surgery” – 29th Edition 📖 Page 689
  4. “Pocket Medicine” – 8th Edition 📖 Page 178
  5. “Lippincott Illustrated Reviews: Biochemistry” – 7th Edition 📖 Page 312
  6. “Clinical Neuroanatomy” – 9th Edition 📖 Page 243
  7. “Pathophysiology of Heart Disease: A Collaborative Project of Medical Students and Faculty” – 8th Edition 📖 Page 371
  8. “Pocket Atlas of Human Anatomy” – 7th Edition 📖 Page 96

Dr. Arin Nandi

Passionate About Medical Science & Helping Future Doctors Achieve Top Ranks In Medical Exams. He is professionally a dentist as well as a public health expert from JIPMER (1), (2)working in health department