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Here is a quick mnemonic “TRAUMA to remember about Carotid Cavernous Fistulas

This can be valuable for patients as well as medical doctors, nurses & students doing their clinical rounds. You can also find it very useful for med exams like USMLE, MBBS, NEET PG, FMGE, NExT, MCAT & NCLEX exams

Carotid Cavernous Fistulas: How To Remember Easily ?

  • T – Trauma: Direct fistulas usually result from trauma.
  • R – Recognizable signs: They are easily diagnosed because of the prominent signs produced by high-flow, high-pressure shunting.
  • A – Arterialized conjunctival vessels: These fistulas produce proptosis, diplopia, glaucoma, and corkscrew, arterialized conjunctival vessels.
  • U – Underdiagnosed: The diagnosis of indirect fistulas is frequently missed as the signs are more subtle.
  • M – Mistaken for thyroid ophthalmopathy: The combination of slight proptosis, diplopia, enlarged muscles, and an injected eye often is mistaken for thyroid ophthalmopathy.
  • A – Auscultation: A bruit heard upon auscultation of the head or reported by the patient is a valuable diagnostic clue.

Mnemonic : TRAUMA

Dr. Arin Nandi

Passionate About Medical Science & Helping Future Doctors Achieve Top Ranks In Medical Exams. He is professionally a dentist as well as a public health expert from JIPMER (1), (2)working in health department