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Here are all the mnemonics you ever wanted on Cardiogenic Shock. These mnemonics covers all aspects of the disease/health condition 

Causes of Cardiogenic Shock:

Mnemonic: TIGERS

T – Tamponade, cardiac

I – Infarction, myocardial

G – Global hypokinesia

E – Endocarditis

R – Rupture of ventricular septum

S – Stenosis, severe aortic


Triggers for Cardiogenic Shock:

Mnemonic: PLACES

P – Pulmonary embolism

L – Left ventricular failure

A – Arrhythmias

C – Coronary artery disease exacerbation

E – Excessive beta-blockers

S – Stress (emotional or physical)


Risk Factors for Cardiogenic Shock:

Mnemonic: HOLIDAYS

H – Hypertension, chronic

O – Obesity

L – Lipidemia, dys

I – Ischemic heart disease

D – Diabetes mellitus

A – Age (older)

Y – Smoking history

S – Sedentary lifestyle


Warning Signs of Cardiogenic Shock:

Mnemonic: CINEMA

C – Confusion

I – Irregular heartbeat

N – Nausea

E – Extreme weakness

M – Moist skin (clammy)

A – Anxiety


Predisposing Factors of Cardiogenic Shock:

Mnemonic: READING

R – Rheumatic heart disease

E – Ejection fraction decreased

A – Anemia

D – Drug abuse (e.g., cocaine)

I – Infection (sepsis)

N – Nutritional deficiencies

G – Genetic predisposition


Signs & Symptoms of Cardiogenic Shock:

Mnemonic: SPORTS

S – Sweating

P – Pallor

O – Oliguria

R – Rapid, weak pulse

T – Tachypnea

S – Syncope


Characteristic Findings in Cardiogenic Shock:

Mnemonic: MUSIC

M – Murmurs (cardiac)

U – Uremia

S – S3 gallop rhythm

I – Increased jugular venous pressure

C – Cool extremities


What Should Be Avoided in Cardiogenic Shock:

Mnemonic: PARTY

P – Pressure overload (excessive IV fluids)

A – Arrhythmogenic drugs

R – Rapid shifts in posture

T – Too much diuretics

Y – Yielding to delay in treatment


Drugs Used to Treat Cardiogenic Shock:

Mnemonic: DANCERS

D – Dobutamine

A – Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors

N – Norepinephrine

C – Calcium channel blockers (careful use)

E – Epinephrine

R – Reperfusion therapy

S – Statins (for underlying coronary artery disease)


Drugs To Avoid In Cardiogenic Shock:

Mnemonic: FLIGHTS

F – Fibrates

L – Lisinopril (and other ACE inhibitors in acute phase)

I – Ibuprofen (and other NSAIDs)

G – Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (careful use)

H – Hydrochlorothiazide

T – Thiazolidinediones

S – SGLT2 inhibitors


Radiological Features of Cardiogenic Shock:

Mnemonic: CLOUDS

C – Cardiomegaly

L – Lung congestion

O – Oedema (pulmonary)

U – Underfilled coronary arteries (in angiography)

D – Dilated inferior vena cava

S – Septal shift (in ventricular septal rupture)


Diagnostic Tests for Cardiogenic Shock:

Mnemonic: BRAINS

B – Blood pressure monitoring

R – Radiography (chest X-ray)

A – Angiography (coronary)

I – Intracardiac pressure measurement

N – Natriuretic peptides (BNP or NT-proBNP)

S – Swans-Ganz catheterization (hemodynamic monitoring)


Laboratory Findings in Cardiogenic Shock:

Mnemonic: LABTEST

L – Lactate levels elevated

A – Arterial blood gases (hypoxia, acidosis)

B – Blood urea nitrogen increased

T – Troponin (elevated)

E – Electrolyte imbalances

S – Serum creatinine (increased)

T – Thrombocytopenia


Complications of Cardiogenic Shock:

Mnemonic: CRASH

C – Cardiac arrest

R – Renal failure

A – Arrhythmias

S – Stroke

H – Hypoxic brain injury


Differential Diagnosis of Cardiogenic Shock:

Mnemonic: MOVIES

M – Myocardial infarction

O – Obstructive shock (pulmonary embolism)

V – Valvular heart disease

I – Infection/sepsis

E – Endocrine emergencies (e.g., thyroid storm)

S – Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS)

Dr. Arin Nandi

Passionate About Medical Science & Helping Future Doctors Achieve Top Ranks In Medical Exams. He is professionally a dentist as well as a public health expert from JIPMER (1), (2)working in health department