You are currently viewing Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndrome Type 3 :‎ Medical Notes & Mindmap

The immune system and numerous endocrine glands are both impacted by the uncommon genetic condition known as APS-3, or autoimmunity polyendocrine syndrome type 3.

The parathyroid, pancreas, and adrenal glands are among the endocrine glands that are impacted by APS-3.

Hypoparathyroidism, diabetic mellitus, and Addison’s disease are among the signs of APS-3. Although the precise origin of APS-3 is unknown, an autoimmune illness is thought to be the cause.

For example, hormone replacement therapy for hypoparathyroidism and diabetic control for diabetes mellitus are common forms of treatment for APS-3.

Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndrome Type 3 :‎ [MEDNOTES+MINDMAP]

  • Definition :

    • A rare genetic disorder characterized by the presence of multiple autoimmune diseases, including Addison’s disease, autoimmune thyroiditis, and pernicious anemia
    • caused by mutations in the AIRE gene, which regulates the immune system
  • Epidemiology :

    • Estimated to affect 1 in 500,000 to 1 in 1,000,000 individuals
    • More common in women than men
    • Often presents in childhood or adolescence, but can occur at any age
  • Natural history :

    • Progressive disorder, with the development of multiple autoimmune diseases over time
    • Can lead to significant morbidity and mortality if not properly managed
    • Early diagnosis and treatment is crucial to prevent complications
  • Types :

    • APS-3 is a subtype of autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome (APS)
    • APS is divided into 3 types based on the presence of specific autoimmune diseases:
      • APS-1: Addison’s disease and autoimmune thyroiditis
      • APS-2: Addison’s disease, autoimmune thyroiditis, and type 1 diabetes
      • APS-3: Addison’s disease, autoimmune thyroiditis, pernicious anemia, and other autoimmune disorders
    • Stages of APS-3 include:
      • Stage 1: Addison’s disease and autoimmune thyroiditis
      • Stage 2: Addison’s disease, autoimmune thyroiditis, and pernicious anemia
      • Stage 3: Addison’s disease, autoimmune thyroiditis, pernicious anemia, and additional autoimmune disorders.
  • Risk Factors:

    • Genetic predisposition
    • Family history of autoimmune disorders
  • Etiology/Causes:

    • Mutations in the AIRE (Autoimmune Regulator) gene
  • Signs:

    • Addison’s disease (adrenal insufficiency)
    • Hypoparathyroidism (low levels of parathyroid hormone)
    • Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (fungal infections of the skin, nails, and mucous membranes)
  • Symptoms:

    • Fatigue
    • Weakness
    • Weight loss
    • Abdominal pain
    • Nausea
    • Vomiting
    • Diarrhea
    • Irritability
    • Depression
    • Skin rashes
    • Fungal infections
    • Muscle and joint pain
    • Low blood pressure
    • Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)
    • Anemia
  • Pathology/Pathogenesis:

    • Defective function of AIRE protein leading to abnormal immune regulation and increased susceptibility to autoimmune disorders
    • Autoimmune destruction of the adrenal glands, parathyroid glands, and other endocrine organs
    • Dysregulation of the immune response to fungal infections
    • Increased production of antibodies directed against various endocrine tissues.
  • Diagnosis :

    • Genetic testing for mutations in the AIRE gene
    • Blood tests to measure levels of hormones and antibodies
    • Imaging tests to evaluate the adrenal and thyroid glands
  • Tests Required :

    • Genetic testing for mutations in the AIRE gene
    • Blood tests for hormones (Cortisol, ACTH, TSH, T4, T3)
    • Antibody tests (Anti-thyroid peroxidase, anti-thyroglobulin)
    • Imaging tests (CT or MRI of the adrenal and thyroid glands)
  • Associated with :

    • Autoimmune thyroid disease (Hashimoto’s or Graves’ disease)
    • Addison’s disease
    • Hypoparathyroidism
    • Type 1 diabetes
    • Pernicious anemia
  • Similar diseases/syndromes :

    • Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndrome Type 1 and Type 2
    • Schmidt’s syndrome
    • polyglandular autoimmune syndrome
  • Treatment :

    • Hormone replacement therapy for adrenal and thyroid dysfunction
    • Immunosuppressive therapy (such as methotrexate or azathioprine) to decrease inflammation and autoimmune activity
    • Vitamin D and calcium supplements for hypoparathyroidism
    • Insulin therapy for diabetes
    • B12 injections for pernicious anemia
    • Close monitoring by a specialist in endocrinology to manage multiple hormone imbalances.

Dr. Arin Nandi

Passionate About Medical Science & Helping Future Doctors Achieve Top Ranks In Medical Exams. He is professionally a dentist as well as a public health expert from JIPMER working in department