You are currently viewing Arakawa’s Syndrome II :‎ Medical Notes & Mindmap

Arakawa’s syndrome is a rare inherited disorder characterised by abnormal nervous system development. It is also known as Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) and is classified into several subtypes, the most severe being type II.

Arakawa's Syndrome II :‎ [MEDNOTES+MINDMAP]

  • Definition

    • A rare genetic disorder characterized by intellectual disability, developmental delay, and abnormalities in muscle tone and coordination
    • Caused by mutations in the PAK3 gene
    • Also known as Arakawa Syndrome Type 2 or Infantile-Onset Autosomal Recessive Parkinsonism
  • Epidemiology

    • Estimated prevalence of 1 in 10 million individuals
    • More common in populations of Ashkenazi Jewish descent
    • Both males and females are affected equally
  • Natural history

    • Symptoms typically appear in infancy or early childhood
    • Progressive decline in cognitive and motor function
    • Developmental delays and intellectual disability
    • Motor symptoms may include tremors, stiffness, and difficulty with balance and coordination
    • Some individuals may also experience seizures
  • Stages

    • Divided into three stages based on severity of symptoms:
      • Stage 1: Mild symptoms with slight developmental delays
      • Stage 2: Moderate symptoms with significant developmental delays
      • Stage 3: Severe symptoms with severe intellectual disability and loss of motor function.
  • Risk Factors

    • Genetic predisposition (autosomal recessive inheritance)
    • Ethnicity (more common in Japanese and Filipino populations)
    • Environmental factors (exposure to toxins, viruses, or radiation)
  • Etiology/Causes

    • Mutation in the NALCN gene, which codes for a protein important in nerve cell signaling
    • This leads to a dysfunction in the nervous system, specifically in the development and maintenance of motor neurons
  • Signs

    • Decreased muscle tone (hypotonia)
    • Weakness and poor coordination
    • Developmental delays and intellectual disability
    • Breathing difficulties and respiratory infections
  • Symptoms

    • Difficulty with movement and coordination
    • Delayed development of motor skills (sitting, crawling, walking)
    • Difficulty speaking or difficulty understanding speech
    • Breathing difficulties and recurrent respiratory infections
  • Pathology/Pathogenesis

    • Damage to motor neurons in the spinal cord and brainstem
    • Reduced nerve impulses and muscle contractions leading to hypotonia and weakness
    • Reduced lung capacity due to muscle weakness leading to respiratory difficulties
    • Intellectual disability due to brainstem damage.
  • Diagnosis
    • Clinical presentation, including symptoms such as developmental delay, intellectual disability, and a distinctive facial appearance
    • Genetic testing (such as sequencing of the NALCN gene) to confirm the diagnosis
  • Tests Required
    • Genetic testing
    • Neuroimaging (such as MRI or CT scans) to assess brain structure and function
    • Developmental assessments to evaluate intellectual and physical abilities
    • Metabolic testing (such as blood chemistry tests) to check for associated metabolic abnormalities
  • Associated with
    • NALCN gene mutations
    • Congenital contractures of limbs
    • Hyperreflexia
    • Epilepsy
    • Respiratory problems
  • Similar diseases/syndromes
    • Other primary ion channelopathies (such as Congenital Myasthenic Syndromes)
    • Other genetic disorders that affect the development of the brain and nervous system (such as Rett syndrome)
  • Treatment
    • Treatment options for Arakawa’s Syndrome II are currently limited, and may include:
    • Management of associated symptoms, such as seizures and respiratory problems
    • Physical therapy to help improve mobility and muscle strength
    • Occupational therapy to help individuals develop daily living skills
    • Genetic counseling for families affected by the condition.
    • There are no specific treatments currently available that target the underlying genetic defect that causes Arakawa’s Syndrome II

Dr. Arin Nandi

Passionate About Medical Science & Helping Future Doctors Achieve Top Ranks In Medical Exams. He is professionally a dentist as well as a public health expert from JIPMER working in govt.health department
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