You are currently viewing Amennorrhea-Galactorrhea Syndrome Medical Notes & Mindmap

Amenorrhea-galactorrhea syndrome is a condition in which a woman experiences both amenorrhea (absence of menstrual periods) and galactorrhea (breast milk production in the absence of pregnancy or lactation).

Amennorrhea-Galactorrhea Syndrome [MEDNOTES+MINDMAP]

Definition:

  • A rare disorder caused by scar tissue formation in the uterus, leading to abnormal function and structure of the uterus

Epidemiology:

  • More common in women of reproductive age
  • Risk factors include: uterine surgery, dilation and curettage (D&C), uterine infection, uterine trauma
  • Prevalence is not well-known due to underdiagnosis and lack of data

Natural history:

  • Can cause infertility, miscarriages, and other obstetrical complications
  • May lead to emotional and psychological distress for affected individuals

Classification/Types/Stages:

  • Classified as primary or secondary, depending on the cause
    • Primary: occurs spontaneously without any known cause
    • Secondary: caused by uterine surgery, D&C, infection, or trauma
  • Stages based on severity:
    • Stage 1: minimal scarring, minimal impact on uterine function
    • Stage 2: moderate scarring, moderate impact on uterine function
    • Stage 3: severe scarring, severe impact on uterine function
    • Stage 4: complete obliteration of the uterine cavity
  • Can also be classified based on location of scar tissue within the uterus:
    • Intramural: within the uterine wall
    • Submucosal: beneath the uterine lining
    • Subserosal: beneath the outer layer of the uterus

  • Risk Factors:

    • Previous uterine surgery or instrumentation, such as D&C (dilation and curettage), C-section, or abortion
    • Previous uterine infection, such as endometritis
    • Scar tissue or adhesions in the uterine lining or cervix
    • Use of certain contraceptives, such as an IUD (intrauterine device)
    • Complications during pregnancy or childbirth, such as placental abruption or uterine rupture
  • Etiology/Causes:

    • Formation of scar tissue or adhesions in the uterine lining or cervix due to uterine surgery or instrumentation, infection, or other trauma
    • Abnormal response to inflammation or injury in the uterus
  • Signs:

    • Menstrual abnormalities, such as amenorrhea (absence of periods) or irregular periods
    • Infertility or difficulty getting pregnant
    • Pelvic pain or discomfort
    • Light or absent bleeding during menstruation
  • Symptoms:

    • Abdominal pain or cramping during menstruation
    • Fatigue
    • Weight gain
    • Mood changes or depression
    • Difficulty getting pregnant or infertility

  • Histology/Microscopic Changes

    • Scar tissue formation in the uterine cavity
    • Thickened endometrial lining
    • Absence of menstrual bleeding
  • Pathology/Pathogenesis

    • Causes: uterine surgery (such as c-section, abortion, or D&C), uterine infection, uterine trauma
    • Results in adhesions or scar tissue forming between the uterine walls, blocking the menstrual flow and hindering implantation of a fertilized egg
  • Diagnosis/Laboratory Diagnosis

    • Pelvic exam to check for adhesions or scar tissue
    • Ultrasound to visualize the uterine cavity
    • Hysteroscopy to directly visualize the uterine cavity
    • Endometrial biopsy to confirm the presence of scar tissue
  • Tests Required

    • Pelvic exam
    • Ultrasound
    • Hysteroscopy
    • Endometrial biopsy

  • Associated with/Strongly Associated with:

    • Dilation and curettage (D&C) procedure
    • Cesarean delivery
    • Uterine surgery or trauma
    • Infection or inflammation of the uterus
  • Similar syndromes:

    • Adenomyosis
    • Endometriosis
    • Uterine fibroids
  • Prevention:

    • Avoiding unnecessary uterine procedures or surgeries
    • Proper care and treatment of uterine infections or inflammation
    • Careful management of pregnancy and childbirth
  • Treatment:

    • Hormonal therapy to stimulate the regrowth of the endometrial lining
    • Surgery to remove scar tissue and reconstruct the uterus
    • Assisted reproduction techniques, such as in vitro fertilization, to bypass the damaged uterine lining
    • Adoption or surrogacy as alternative options for starting a family

Dr. Arin Nandi

Passionate About Medical Science & Helping Future Doctors Achieve Top Ranks In Medical Exams. He is professionally a dentist as well as a public health expert from JIPMER working in govt.health department
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