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Here are all the mnemonics you ever wanted on ⚡Alpha 1 Antitrypsin Deficiency⚡. These mnemonics covers all aspects of the disease/health condition 


Causes of Alpha 1 Antitrypsin Deficiency


G – Genetic mutation (SERPINA1 gene)

E – Environmental factors not primary cause

N – Neonatal manifestations possible

E – Ethnicity (more common in Caucasians)

T – Transmitted as autosomal co-dominant trait

I – Inherited disorder

C – Chromosome 14 involvement

G – Globule formation in hepatocytes

A – Alleles PiZ and PiS most commonly involved

P – Protease-antiprotease imbalance


Triggers for Alpha 1 Antitrypsin Deficiency

Mnemonic: SMOKE HARM

S – Smoking

M – Maternal smoking (during pregnancy)

O – Occupational dust exposure

K – Known familial history

E – Environmental pollution

H – Hepatotoxic agents

A – Airborne irritants

R – Respiratory infections

M – Medications (certain drugs can exacerbate liver damage)


Risk Factors For Alpha 1 Antitrypsin Deficiency


F – Family history of the condition

A – Ancestry (Northern European descent)

M – Male gender (slightly higher risk of liver disease)

I – Infant with jaundice or liver dysfunction

L – Lung disease in young adults without obvious cause

Y – Youth (early onset of emphysema)

R – Respiratory symptoms in nonsmokers

I – Irregular liver enzyme levels

S – Shortness of breath at a young age

K – Known genetic mutations in the family


Warning Signs of Alpha 1 Antitrypsin Deficiency


B – Breathing difficulties

R – Recurrent respiratory infections

E – Early onset emphysema

A – Abnormal liver function tests

T – Tiredness

H – Hepatomegaly in some cases

L – Low serum alpha 1 antitrypsin levels

E – Elevated liver enzymes

S – Shortness of breath

S – Skin problems (rare, necrotizing panniculitis)


Predisposing Factors of Alpha 1 Antitrypsin Deficiency

Mnemonic: GENE POOL

G – Genetic predisposition

E – Ethnic background (Northern European descent)

N – Neonatal jaundice history

E – Early adulthood respiratory issues

P – Parental history of the disease

O – Occupational exposures to lung irritants

O – Older age with unexplained liver disease

L – Lifestyle factors (smoking)


Signs & Symptoms of Alpha 1 Antitrypsin Deficiency


C – Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

O – Obstructive jaundice in neonates

U – Unexplained liver disease

G – Gradual worsening of respiratory function

H – Hepatic cirrhosis

L – Low alpha 1 antitrypsin serum levels

I – Increased risk of emphysema

V – Variable presentation in adults and children

E – Early onset of respiratory symptoms

R – Recurrent lung infections


Characteristic Findings In Alpha 1 Antitrypsin Deficiency

Mnemonic: LIVER AIR

L – Liver cirrhosis and hepatomegaly

I – Increased susceptibility to lung infections

V – Visual emphysematous changes in lungs

E – Elevated liver enzymes

R – Reduced alpha 1 antitrypsin levels

A – Airflow obstruction

I – Infiltrates in lung radiography

R – Rapid progression of lung disease in smokers


What Should Be Avoided In Alpha 1 Antitrypsin Deficiency

Mnemonic: AVOID SINS

A – Alcohol (exacerbates liver damage)

V – Viral hepatitides exposure

O – Occupational lung irritants

I – Inflammatory lung irritants

D – Dust and other particulate matter

S – Smoking (worsens lung condition)

I – Inappropriate medications (hepatotoxic drugs)

N – Neglecting vaccinations (flu, pneumococcal)

S – Sedentary lifestyle (decreases lung function)


Drugs Used To Treat Alpha 1 Antitrypsin Deficiency


L – Leukotriene modifiers (for asthma)

U – Ursodeoxycholic acid (for liver disease)

N – N-acetylcysteine (antioxidant therapy)

G – Glucocorticoids (for asthma/COPD)

P – Proton pump inhibitors (for associated GERD)

R – Replacement therapy (alpha 1 antitrypsin augmentation)

O – Oxygen therapy (for severe lung disease)

T – Theophylline (for respiratory symptoms)

E – Enzyme inhibitors (for liver protection)

C – Cholestyramine (for pruritus associated with liver disease)

T – Tylenol (acetaminophen) with caution for pain (avoid NSAIDs)


Drugs To Avoid In Alpha 1 Antitrypsin Deficiency


N – NSAIDs (can exacerbate liver damage)

O – Opioids (risk of respiratory depression)

L – Live vaccines (if immunocompromised)

I – Isoniazid (risk of hepatotoxicity)

V – Valproic acid (hepatotoxic risk)

E – Estrogens (risk of thrombosis)

R – Rifampin (hepatotoxic risk)

H – Hepatotoxic drugs in general

A – Alcohol-containing medications

R – Respiratory depressants

M – Methotrexate (hepatotoxic risk)


Radiological Features of Alpha 1 Antitrypsin Deficiency

Mnemonic: CLEAR LUNG

C – Cystic changes in the upper lung zones

L – Lower lobe hyperinflation

E – Emphysema, panlobular type

A – Altered diaphragmatic contour (flattened)

R – Reduced vascular markings in emphysematous areas

L – Liver abnormalities (hepatomegaly, cirrhosis)

U – Upper lobe fibrosis (less common)

N – Nodular liver appearance in advanced cases

G – Ground-glass opacities (rare)


Diagnostic Tests for Alpha 1 Antitrypsin Deficiency

Mnemonic: TEST LEVEL

T – Tomography (high-resolution CT for lung assessment)

E – Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)

S – Serum alpha 1 antitrypsin level measurement

T – Testing for liver function (ALT, AST)

L – Liver biopsy (if liver disease is suspected)

E – Electrophoresis for alpha 1 antitrypsin phenotyping

V – Viral hepatitis screening (due to liver involvement)

E – Echocardiogram (if cor pulmonale is suspected)

L – Lung function tests (spirometry)


Laboratory Findings In Alpha 1 Antitrypsin Deficiency

Mnemonic: LAB DATA

L – Low serum alpha 1 antitrypsin levels

A – ALT and AST elevation (liver enzymes)

B – Bilirubin levels increased (if liver involvement)

D – Decreased lung function parameters (FEV1/FVC ratio)

A – Alkaline phosphatase elevation (in liver disease)

T – Thrombocytopenia (in advanced liver disease)

A – AAT gene mutation analysis positive


Complications of Alpha 1 Antitrypsin Deficiency


L – Liver cirrhosis

I – Increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma

V – Vascular complications (e.g., portal hypertension)

E – Emphysema, early onset

R – Respiratory failure

L – Liver failure

U – Upper respiratory tract infections (recurrent)

N – Necrotizing panniculitis (rare skin complication)

G – Gastric reflux disease (secondary to lung disease)

S – Spirometry deterioration over time


Differential Diagnosis of Alpha 1 Antitrypsin Deficiency

Mnemonic: DIFF LUNG

D – Drug-induced liver injury

I – Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

F – Familial emphysema

F – Fibrosis, hepatic (other causes)

L – Liver diseases (other genetic liver disorders)

U – Usual interstitial pneumonia

N – Neonatal jaundice of other etiologies

G – Granulomatous lung diseases (e.g., sarcoidosis)


Clinical Features of Alpha 1 Antitrypsin Deficiency

Mnemonic: COUGH HARD

C – COPD symptoms

O – Obstructive sleep apnea (risk)

U – Unexplained liver disease

G – GI issues (secondary to liver disease)

H – Hepatomegaly

H – Hyperinflated lungs on imaging

A – Asthmatic symptoms

R – Recurrent respiratory infections

D – Dyspnea on exertion


Dr. Arin Nandi

Passionate About Medical Science & Helping Future Doctors Achieve Top Ranks In Medical Exams. He is professionally a dentist as well as a public health expert from JIPMER (1), (2)working in health department