Achard-Thiers syndrome is a rare hormonal disorder that affects women, characterized by insulin resistance, high levels of androgens (male hormones) in the blood, and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
Women with Achard-Thiers syndrome may experience symptoms such as irregular menstrual periods, excess facial and body hair, acne, and difficulty getting pregnant.
The mindmap/concept map will also help you in remembering the important concepts of Achard-Thiers Syndrome very clearly during exams
Achard-Thiers Syndrome : [MEDNOTES+MINDMAP]
- Rare endocrine disorder characterized by insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus, hirsutism, and virilization in women.
- Also known as: Stein-Leventhal Syndrome, Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)
- Prevalence: 5-10% of women of reproductive age
- Risk factors: obesity, family history of diabetes, high testosterone levels
- Onset typically occurs in adolescence or early adulthood
- Chronic condition with variable course and progression
- Can lead to fertility issues, cardiovascular disease, and other complications if left untreated
- Type 1: insulin-resistant diabetes with PCOS
- Type 2: non-insulin-resistant diabetes with PCOS
- Stage 1: menstrual irregularity, hirsutism, acne, elevated testosterone levels
- Stage 2: insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, prediabetes
- Stage 3: diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease risk
- Female gender
- Postmenopausal age
- Insulin resistance/Type 2 diabetes
- Family history of diabetes
- The exact cause of Achard-Thiers syndrome is unknown, but it is believed to be related to insulin resistance and the body’s inability to use insulin effectively.
- Elevated blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia)
- High levels of insulin in the blood (hyperinsulinemia)
- Excessive thirst (polydipsia)
- Frequent urination (polyuria)
- Hunger (polyphagia)
- Weight loss
- Slow healing of cuts and wounds
- Frequent infections
- Dry, itchy skin
- Blurred vision
- Insulin resistance leads to an increase in insulin production by the pancreas, leading to hyperinsulinemia.
- The excess insulin may stimulate the growth of ovarian and adrenal androgen-producing cells, leading to excess androgens in the blood.
- The excess androgens may cause virilization (development of male characteristics) in females, including facial hair growth, acne, and irregular periods.
- The excess androgens may also contribute to the development of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a common cause of infertility in women.
- The combination of insulin resistance and excess androgens may also lead to an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes and other metabolic disorders.
- Symptoms typically present in postmenopausal women, including insulin resistance, obesity, and high levels of testosterone
- Diagnosis typically made through blood tests to measure insulin resistance, testosterone levels, and other hormone levels
- Genetic testing may also be done to confirm diagnosis
- Tests Required
- Blood tests to measure insulin resistance, testosterone levels, and other hormone levels
- Genetic testing may also be necessary
- Associated with
- Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
- Insulin resistance
- Type 2 diabetes
- Similar diseases/syndromes
- Adrenogenital syndrome
- Congenital adrenal hyperplasia
- Weight loss and exercise to improve insulin resistance
- Medications to lower testosterone levels and regulate menstrual cycle
- Hormone replacement therapy to improve symptoms of menopause
- Surgical removal of ovarian cysts may be necessary in some cases