If you want to learn about Abdominal Pain then a particular way to remember about this topic is to form short mnemonics that are easy to remember and can pay you rich dividends in medical & nursing exams.
Here we have broken abdominal pain into several subtopics and converted all the vital info into eye catching mnemonics. Hope you like these memory aids
Role of Inflammation of the Parietal Peritoneum In Abdominal Pain :
- S – Steady and aching pain
- P – Pain intensity dependent on type and amount of material exposed to peritoneal surfaces
- A – Accentuated by pressure or changes in tension of the peritoneum
- M – Muscle spasm of the abdominal musculature
- P – Pain location possible due to transmission by somatic nerves supplying parietal peritoneum
- A – Attenuated pain and muscle spasm in slowly developing processes or perforation into protected areas
- I – Importance of the rate at which any inflammatory material irritates the peritoneum
- N – No detectable pain or muscle spasm in certain patients or catastrophic emergencies.
Mnemonic: “SPAM PAIN“
Role of Obstruction of Hollow Viscera In Abdominal Pain :
I – Intraluminal obstruction classically elicits intermittent or colicky abdominal pain that is not as well localized as the pain of parietal peritoneal irritation.
C – Cramping discomfort can be misleading because distention of a hollow viscus may also produce steady pain with only rare paroxysms.
E – Epigastric pain that may radiate to the upper lumbar region is often caused by distention of the common bile duct.
S – Small-bowel obstruction often presents as poorly localized, intermittent periumbilical or supraumbilical pain.
P – Pain of distention of the pancreatic ducts is similar to that described for distention of the common bile duct but is very frequently accentuated by recumbency and relieved by the upright position.
A – Acute obstruction of the intravesicular portion of the ureter is characterized by severe suprapubic and flank pain that radiates to the penis, scrotum, or inner aspect of the upper thigh.
D – Dull, low-intensity pain in the suprapubic region is usually caused by obstruction of the urinary bladder.
E – Gradual dilatation of the biliary tree, as can occur with carcinoma of the head of the pancreas, may cause no pain or only a mild aching sensation in the epigastrium or right upper quadrant.
Mnemonic: “ICE SPADE“
Vascular Disturbances In Abdominal Pain :
- P – Pain due to intraabdominal vascular disturbances is often misunderstood
- A – Associated with diffuse, severe pain in certain disease processes
- I – In occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery, the patient may only experience mild continuous or cramping diffuse pain for a few days
- N – No tenderness or rigidity in the presence of continuous, diffuse pain is characteristic of occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery
- C – Continuous diffuse pain is caused by hyperperistalsis rather than peritoneal inflammation
- A – Abdominal pain with radiation to the sacral region, flank, or genitalia may signal a rupturing abdominal aortic aneurysm
- R – Rupturing abdominal aortic aneurysm pain may persist for several days before rupture and collapse occur
- E – Early recognition and prompt treatment can prevent catastrophic outcomes.
Mnemonic: “PAIN CARE“
Role Of Abdominal Wall In Abdominal Pain :
- C: Constant and aching pain from the abdominal wall
- A: Accentuation of pain with movement, prolonged standing, and pressure
- M: Mass present in the lower quadrants in rare cases of hematoma of the rectus sheath
- P: Pain in the same region differentiated from myositis of the abdominal wall by simultaneous involvement of muscles in other parts of the body
- S: Spasm associated with discomfort in the abdominal wall
Referred Pain In Abdominal Disease :
- P – Pain referred to the abdomen from the thorax, spine, or genitalia may present a diagnostic challenge
- A – Abdominal cavity diseases may be associated with intrathoracic complications
- D – Diaphragmatic pleuritis resulting from pneumonia or pulmonary infarction may cause pain in the right upper quadrant
- R – Referred pain of thoracic origin is often accompanied by splinting of the involved hemithorax
- E – Examination directed toward detecting myocardial or pulmonary infarction, pneumonia, pericarditis, or esophageal disease can provide clues to the proper diagnosis
- T – Thoracic disease and abdominal disease frequently coexist and may be difficult to differentiate
- A – Abdominal discomfort experienced from pain referred from the testes or seminal vesicles is of dull, aching character and is poorly localized
- P – Palpation over the area of referred pain in the abdomen does not usually accentuate the pain
- E – Examination must be deliberate and planned over a period of several hours
Mnemonic: “PADRE TAPE“
Pain of metabolic origin in Abdominal Pain :
Mnemonic: “POSSUM PAINS“
Role Of Immunocompression In Abdominal Pain :
Neurogenic Causes Of Abdominal Pain :
Approach To A Patient With Abdominal Pain :
Mnemonic: “URGENT ABDOMEn“