You are currently viewing Abdominal Compartment Syndrome‎ Medical Notes & Mindmap

Abdominal compartment syndrome is a serious condition that occurs when the pressure inside the abdomen becomes too high. This increased pressure may cause damage to the organs and tissues in the abdomen and thus can lead to life-threatening complications if left untreated.

Abdominal Compartment Syndrome‎ [MEDNOTES+MINDMAP]

  • Definition: Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is a condition in which increased pressure within the abdomen leads to reduced perfusion of vital organs and tissues, potentially resulting in organ dysfunction or failure.

  • Epidemiology:

    • Incidence: 0.5-2% in critically ill patients
    • More common in males and individuals with underlying medical conditions
  • Natural history:

    • Progressive condition
    • Associated with high mortality rate
  • Classification/Types/Stages:

    • Based on underlying cause (e.g. trauma, surgery)
    • Based on severity (mild, moderate, severe)
      • Mild: increased intra-abdominal pressure and organ dysfunction
      • Severe: frank organ failure and emergent intervention needed
  • Risk Factors:

    • Trauma
    • Surgery
    • Sepsis
    • Abdominal distention
    • Severe burns
    • Fluid overload
    • Pregnancy
    • Obesity
    • Abdominal tumors
  • Etiology/Causes:

    • Increased intra-abdominal pressure
    • Decreased abdominal wall compliance
    • Poor perfusion of abdominal organs
  • Signs:

    • Abdominal distention
    • Tenderness
    • Increased heart rate
    • Decreased urine output
    • Decreased capillary refill
    • Decreased breath sounds
    • Decreased blood pressure
  • Symptoms:

    • Severe abdominal pain
    • Nausea and vomiting
    • Difficulty breathing
    • Confusion or altered mental status
    • Decreased bowel sounds
    • Decreased urine output
    • Decreased arterial blood pressure
    • Skin changes (cyanosis, mottling)

 

  • Pathology/Pathogenesis
    • Increased intra-abdominal pressure from fluid accumulation, swelling, or scar tissue
    • Trauma or surgery leading to inflammation and swelling
    • Burns or severe abdominal infections
    • Overuse of abdominal muscles during prolonged ventilation or CPR
    • Abdominal aortic aneurysm
  • Diagnosis/Laboratory Diagnosis
    • Physical examination for distended abdomen and difficulty with respiration
    • Measurement of intra-abdominal pressure
    • Laboratory tests for organ function and inflammation markers
    • Imaging tests such as CT or ultrasound to assess organ damage and fluid accumulation
  • Tests Required:

    • Abdominal ultrasound
    • CT scan
    • Blood tests
    • Urine tests
    • Electrolyte levels
    • Arterial blood gas analysis
  • Associated with :

    • Severe abdominal injury
    • Abdominal surgery
    • Severe pancreatitis
    • Severe abdominal infection
    • Abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture
    • Blunt trauma to the abdomen
    • Multiple organ failure
    • Sepsis
    • Burns
  • Similar diseases/syndromes:

    • Intra-abdominal hypertension
    • Mesenteric ischemia
    • Ischemic colitis
  • Treatment:

    • Surgical decompression
    • Abdominal drainage
    • Antibiotics for infection
    • Nutritional support
    • Fluid management
    • Continuous renal replacement therapy
    • Vasopressor medications to maintain blood pressure
    • Close monitoring of intra-abdominal pressure and organ function.

Dr. Arin Nandi

Passionate About Medical Science & Helping Future Doctors Achieve Top Ranks In Medical Exams. He is professionally a dentist as well as a public health expert from JIPMER working in govt.health department
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